English Language Pedagogy is an important section in CTET Papaer-1 and Paper-2 Exam which covers 15 marks out of 30 Marks weightage of English subject. And we know that no candidate want to miss those 15 marks. However, it is very tedious job to ?make and search suitable notes for Pedagogy of English subject.
Competition Gurukul has uploading the complete study material for English Subject Pedagogy which is concise, precise and revised material for CTET Exams.
Section – 1 : Important Sayings about Language (English)
- ?Language is one of the most important characteristic forms of human behavior? ? Gleason
- ?English is our major window in the modern world?- Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru.
- ?A single shelf of a good European literature (English) is worth the whole literature of India and Arabia?- Lord Macaulay
- ?Mother-tongue is the basic of all words? ? Ryburn
- ?Guided composition is not a panacea for all the problems of teaching composition to foreign student? ? Allen and Campbell
- The standard Indian pronunciation should be free from the gravitational pull of mother-tongue? ? Menon and Patel
- ?Reading make a full man, writing an exact man and conference a ready man? ? Francis Bacon
- ?English spelling is a national misfortune to England and international misfortune to rest of the world? ? Max Mueller
- ?Spelling is caught rather than taught? ? W.S. Tompkinson
- ?A minimum of fifteen minutes in a day should be given to learning spelling? ? J.M. Rice
Section – 2 : Concepts of a Language
- Father of Modern linguistics(i.e related to a language) ? Ferdinand de Saussure
- Branches of Linguistics
A. Historical linguistics: It is a branch of linguistic studies which uses the applications of the basic principles of the linguistic science to language teaching
? ? ? ? ? It explores different aspects of language change:
- Etymology: Studying the reconstruction and origin of words.
- Dialectology : It concerns the historical study of dialects ( ). Features which are usually a matter for debate are grammatical variations between two dialects, and phonological changes within a dialect over time.
- Phonology : It concerns with the study of the sound systems which exist (or have existed) in a specific language. Studies in phonology can also concern comparative approaches to language studies between different time periods, dialects and languages.
- Morphology/Syntax : It concerns about how the means of expression of a language evolve over time. It is usually focused on inflectional systems, grammatical structures, and word order.
? ? ? ? 3. Formal Properties of Language
- Morphology : Morphology is all about our mental dictionary and the words stored in our minds;?the mental system of rules that helps us form and understand words.
- Syntax : Syntax is one of the core areas of linguistic research, and is the study of how words are ordered in human language. What rules are necessary to describe a particular language, and how can these rules differ across languages? To use the formal OED definition, syntax is concerned with??the set of rules and principles in a language?, which relate to how??words and phrases are arranged to create well-formed sentences.??(Oxford English Dictionary:2015)
- Phonetics: It is concerned with the PHYSICAL?production of speech sounds. It is concerned with
- Phonology: It is concerned with theABSTRACT?units of speech. It is concerned with
- Semantics : It is a sub-discipline of Linguistics which focuses on the study of meaning. Semantics tries to understand what meaning is as an element of language and how it is constructed by language as well as interpreted, obscured and negotiated by speakers and listeners of language.
- Pragmatics: It is similar to semantics, but it involves the study of how speakers of a language use the language to communicate and accomplish what they want. Pragmatics looks more at the relationship between speaker and listener which allows assumptions to be made about the intended message, considering, for example, the way context contributes to meaning. A classic example is where someone is asked “Do you want some coffee?” Does the reply “Coffee will keep me awake” mean yes or no? It depends whether the person wants to stay awake – and the questioner will only understand the intended meaning if they know whether the person wants to stay awake.
What is Phoneme?
Question : Who gave psychological definition of phoneme?
Answer: Edward Sapir
What is Morphene?
Question: How many morphemes are there in the word untimely?
Objective of Morphemes : To enable the pupil to
1. Master certain vocabulary
2. Write correct spellings
3. Make the correct use of words
Section – 3 : Important Pedagogical Points of English Language?
(30 Points ? Can be asked in Question Form in CTET)
- Subject-verb-object is the basic combination to construct a sentence in Engliah Language. It is also famously known as SVO (Subject-Verb-Object)
- There are total 9 patterns in English Language.
- Syntagmatic is the term used to specify the combination of sentence that is supported by linearity
- Main reasons to explain why English as a Language has gained so much importance
- Used in the judicial work
- Used in trade and commerce
- Internationally admired language
Importance of teaching English as a Language in India
- Recreational Importance
- Cultural Importance
- Professional Importance
- Raja Ram Mohan Roy was the reformist to support English education in Indian
- Teaching in Mother Tongue help in the development of child mentally, emotionally, and socially.
But, the use of mother-tongue causes hindrances in the teaching of English due to;
- Idiomatic interference
- Pronunciation Interference
- Vocabulary Interference
Direct Method is considered as the method which completely prohibits the use of mother-tongue. But such thing is not observed with teaching through translation method and bilingual method
- Important information about teaching English Language
- Teaching of English is based upon three principles:
- Linguistic principle
- Pedagogical Principle
-? Basically, Structural approach is used to teach English as a foreign language
- There are 4 Phases involved in the teaching of English:
- Pre-production 😕This is the silent period. English language learners may have up to 500 ?words in their receptive vocabulary but they are not yet speaking. Some students will, however, repeat every thing you say. They are not really producing language but are parroting.
- Early Production ;?This stage may last up to six months and students will develop a receptive and active vocabulary of about 1000 words. During this stage, students can usually speak in one- or two-word phrases. They can use short language chunks that have been memorized although these chunks may not always be used correctly.
- Speech Emergence 😕Students have developed a vocabulary of about 3,000 words and can communicate with simple phrases and sentences. They will ask simple questions, that may or may not be grammatically correct, such as ? May I go to bathroom? ? ELLs will also initiate short conversations with classmates. They will understand easy stories read in class with the support of pictures. They will also be able to do some content work with teacher support. Here are some simple tasks they can complete:
- Intermediate Fluency 😕English language learners at the intermediate fluency stage have a vocabulary of 6000 active words. They are beginning to use more complex sentences when speaking and writing and are willing to express opinions and share their thoughts. They will ask questions to clarify what they are learning in class. These English language learners will be able to work in grade level math and science classes with some teacher support. Comprehension of English literature and social studies content is increasing. At this stage, students will use strategies from their native language to learn content in English.
Question: At the upper primary stage, a child should acquire a vocabulary of words:
a. 3000??? b. 500??? c. 5000????? d. 2500
- English in India is best regarded as a Foreign Language though it can be used both as first as well as second language. Note that English language can be regarded as a link language, a library language or an International language depending upon its usability among general masses
- What is English Prose 😕Prose?is a form of language that has no formal metrical structure. It applies a natural flow of speech, and ordinary grammatical structure rather than rhythmic structure, such as in the case of traditional poetry. Normal every day speech is spoken in?prose?and most people think and write?in?prose?form.
|Example of Poem:
?The woods are lovely, dark and deep.
But I have promises to keep,
And miles to go before I sleep,
And miles to go before I sleep.”? ? ? ? ? ? ? ??
|Example of Prose:
?The woods look lovely against the setting darkness and as I gaze into the mysterious depths of the forest, I feel like lingering here longer.? However, I have pending appointments to keep and much distance to cover before I settle in for the night or else I will be late for all of them.?
|1. English Prose came into existence during 14th century.
2. The age of Elizabethan is considered very rich in prose writing.
The teaching of Prose include novel, composition and story.
The general aim of prose teaching is to help the students to develop:
- Interest in reading
- Critical thinking
- Comprehension abitlity
- Grammar is basically taught by the method of Inductive-Deductive
- Functional Grammar is a kind of grammar which is taught incidentally.
- Important information about Poem & Poetry
- Mathew Arnold defined poetry as the criticism of life
- The best method of teaching poetry is Parallel quotation, rather than comprehension or evaluation.
- Steps for teaching a poetry-lesson
- Model Reading
- Second Reading
- Gist of the poem
- Teaching of English Poetry suffers from the limitations of :
- lack of good teachers
- difficulty to adapt a foreign language
- metaphors and similes
- Important information about grammar
- Grammar is a practical analysis of a language
- English can never be considered as a classical language unlike Arabic and Sanskrit
- Types of Grammar:
- Transformational generatives
- of name of Formal grammar, Traditional grammar or Classical Grammar
- Perspective Grammar basically emphasize more on rules
- Structural Grammar basically emphasize more on structure of sentence
- The major factors that influence teaching of grammar are age, level and utility.
- Important information about translation
- Translation as a method of teaching or learning a language has lost its significance because of the advent of
- Direct Method
- Situational Method
- Structural Approach
- Retranslation is a process of translation from English to mother tongue and vice-versa
- Teaching of translation can be used both as a method and a skill
- Translation of a foreign language is basically a job of an expert but neither for a teacher nor for a student
- Important information about composition
- Teaching of composition is based on the principle of Selection, Graduation and Sequence.
- Oral composition does not help those students who are of shy nature. It will be useful for students who are creative in nature
- Composition can be of two types ? oral or written, but not closed
- Objective of teaching composition is to enable the student:
- to use vocabulary already present
- to make appropriate use of pronunciation
- to express their ideas
- Oral composition helps in developing:
- Correct pronunciation
- Spontaneity of speech
- Written composition can be written in the form of:
- Precise writing
- Conversation and Dialogue
- At the later stage, oral composition can be taught through Dramatization,
- Reading is the method which is not used in guided compositionStructure of a English Sentence can be of seven types:
- Simple sentence (independent clause): ?I went for a walk.?
- Compound sentence, IC+CC+IC (independent clause plus coordinating conjunction plus independent clause): ?I went for a walk, and I was soothed by the gentle night air.?
- Compound sentence, IC+S+IC (independent clause plus semicolon plus independent clause): ?I went for a walk; I was soothed by the gentle night air.?
- Compound sentence, IC+AC+IC (independent clause plus adverbial conjunction plus independent clause): ?I went for a walk; consequently, I was soothed by the gentle night air.?
- Complex sentence, DM+C+IC (dependent marker plus clause plus independent clause): ?Because I hoped to be soothed by the gentle night air, I went for a walk.?
- Complex sentence, RP+C (relative pronoun plus clause): ?Whatever doubts I had about taking a walk dissipated when I was soothed by the gentle night air.?
- Compound-complex sentence, DC+IC+CC+IC (dependent clause plus independent clause plus coordinating conjunction plus independent clause): ?As I headed out for a walk, my doubts about doing so dissipated, and I was soothed by the gentle night air.?