Congratulations To Delhi Police Students For Qualifying The Physical Round

CONGREGATIOns

Competition Gurukul would like to congratulate our students of Delhi Police batch for qualifying in their Physical Round of Delhi Police Physical Test-2017. The Physical Test of Delhi Police is a test of physical as well as mental strength of the candidates which require shear hard work, commitment and constant dedication which our students have paid and the result is in front of the world. Here, we would also like to congratulate the parents of each qualified students who took trouble to provide them quality coaching. Moreover, we would like to thank our teachers who are always there to motivate the students and guide them to achieve this feet.

Untitled

 

Delhi Police Recruitment Notification 2016

Delhi Police Recruitment 2016 for?the vacant posts of 4699 Female and Male Constables. Job hunters are ?to be notified by the Delhi Police. The interested aspirants for Delhi Police Recruitment Exam must have completed?their 12th Class / Intermediate or its equivalent qualification from any recognized Institution / Board with minimum aggregate of marks. Other important details are given below:

Location:?New Delhi

Pay Scale:?Contenders shortlisted for Delhi Police Recruitment 2016 will receive consoldated pay band as per government norms. Refer official advertisement to get data about post wise salary information.

Delhi Police Constable?Notification 2016?Eligibility Criteria

Selection Procedure:

  • Written Exam
  • Physical Efficiency Test
  • Measurement Test

Age Limit:?

  • Minimum age should be 18 years and Maximum is 21 years
  • SC, ST, PWD?and Women category candidates will get age relaxation according to government norms.

Qualification:?The interested candidate?must have finished their 12th Class / Intermediate or its equivalent qualification from any recognized Institution / Board with minimum aggregate of marks.

How to Apply Delhi Police Constable Jobs 2016

  • Visit the official page ?of Delhi Police www.delhipolice.nic.in
  • Goto Recruitment section and read the particular notification thoroughly
  • Eligible applicants can apply for?Online application form
  • Fill necessary details in the form
  • Attach your recent pass port size photograph, signature
  • Upload copies of candidates educational qualification and experience
  • Then Pay the application fee according to your category
  • Verify the info you provided to avoid errors
  • Hit on submit button for complete application procedure
  • Submit your applications on or before closing date

 

SSC/Delhi Police/SI/ASI/Sarkari Naukri Know the Ten Gurus of Sikhs

1. Guru Nanak Dev Ji

Sikhism belongs to a religious sect founded by Guru Nanak (1469 ? 1539). His main teachings were the faith in one true Lord, the worship of the Name and the necessity of a Guru in the worship of the name.

2.?Guru Angad?Dev Ji

After his death, Guru Angad (1539 ? 52) became his successor. He invented the Gurumukhi script for the Punjabi Language.

3. Guru Amar Das?Ji

Guru Amardas (1552 ? 74) was the next guru. ?He reformed the institution of hangar and gave more importance to it. He divided his spiritual empire into 22 parts called Manjis. Each Manjis was put under the charge of a Sikh.


4. Guru Ram?Das?Ji

IV guru, Guru Ramdas (1575 ? 81) had very cordial relations with with Akbar.?He laid the foundation of Amritsar city. He dug a tank (sarovar) and it exists at Amritsar. In the midst of the tank, the Harmandir Sahib (Temple of God) was constructed.

5. Guru Arjan Dev?Ji

V guru, Guru Arjun Dev (1581 ? 1606) compiled Adi Granth. He also completed the construction of Amritsar and founded other cities like Taran Taran and Kartarpur. He was executed by Jahangir for helping his rebellious son, Khusro.

6. Guru Har Govind?Ji

VI guru, Guru Har Govind Rai?(1606 ? 44) defeated a Mughal Army at Sangrama. He transformed the Sikhs into?military community, established?Akal Takhtat the Golden Temple and held court there to conduct secular matters. He himself took up the tide of Sachcha Padshah. He also fortified Amritsar.

7. Guru Har Rai (1644 ? 61) and Guru Har Krishan (1661 ? 64) were the VII and VIII gurus respectively.

?Guru Har Rai ? ? ?Guru Har Krishan ? ? ? ? ?

9. Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji

IX guru, Guru Tegh Bahadur (1664 ? 75) revolted against Aurangzeb but was executed by him. He was beheaded at Delhi?s Chandni Chowk in November 1675. The Sis Ganj Gurudwara marks the site of his martyrdom.


Gurudwara Sis Ganj Sahib

10. Guru Gobind Singh Ji

X and last guru, Guru Gobind Singh (1675 ? 1708) (born in Patna) organised Sikhs as a community of warriors and called them as Khalsa (Baisakhi day, 1699). He summoned a big assembly of Sikhs at Anantpur and selected 5 persons who came to be known as Panj Pyare. They took the water of immortality.

? ? ? ? ?

What is Panj Pyare?

The Panj Pyare are beloved by Sikhs because the tenth guru of the Sikhs Gobind Rai called to a crowd of thousands who had assembled on the day of Baisakhi, asking for volunteers who would give him their heads.

Five men came forward:

  • Bhai Daya Singh
  • Bhai Dharam Singh
  • Bhai Himmat Singh
  • Bhai Muhkam Singh
  • Bhai Sahib Singh

Dress Code of Sikhs

The Sikhs were given a distinct dress and they were required to keep on their person five things beginning with K, viz., Kesh, Kripan, Kachha, Kanga and Kara. He compiled a supplementary granth called ?Daswen Padshah ka ?Granth?.

Remember

After the death of Aurangzeb, Guru Gobind Singh had cordial relations with his son. Bahadur Shah I. He even agreed to accompany the new king to Deccan. But the Guru was stabbed to death by a Pathan in 1708. At his death, he declared that henceforth, the Guru shall be in the Khalsa and the Khalsa in the Guru. He declared that from now on Granth Sahib should be treated as the Guru.

SSC/DELHI POLICE/SI/ASI/Sarkari Naukri COACHING FOR BETTER RESULTS

Competition Gurukul is a premier institute for Delhi Police/SI/ASI?Exam Coaching. You can visit our center to register your slot for fresh batches. You will be guided by our counsellor from Monday to Saturday at scheduled timing of 9 AM to 8 PM.

For More Information Contact

Competition Gurukul
A-1/17, Janakpuri, Main Najafgarh Road,
Opp Metro Pillar 636, New Delhi ? 110058

Delhi Police/SI/ASI History Chapter on Mahajanpadas

 

Competition Gurukul presents the latest & revised notes for Delhi Police/SI/ASI Recruitment Exam. All aspirants are advised to go through the notes thoroughly.

The Mahajanpadas

  • His mother (Mahamaya, of Kosala dynasty) died after 7 days of his birth. Brought up by stepmother
  • Married at 16 to Yoshodhara. Enjoyed the married life for 13 years and had a son named Rahula
  • After seeing an old man, a sick man, a corpse and an ascetic, he decided to become a wanderer.
  • Left his palace at 29 (with Channa, the charioteer and his favourite horse, Kanthaka) in search of truth (also called ?Mahabhinishkramana? or The Great Renunciation) and wandered for 6?years.
  • He first meditated with Alara But he was not convinced that man could obtain liberation from sorrow by mental discipline and knowledge. His next teacher was Udraka Ramputra. He then joined forces? with ?five ascetics- Kondana, Vappa, Bhadiya, Mahanama and Assagi, who were practicing the most rigorous self- mortification in the hope of wearing away their karma and obtaining final bliss.

  • For six years he tortured himself until he was nothing but a walking But after six years, he felt that his fasts and penance had been useless. So he abandoned these things. The five disciples also left him.
  • Attained ?Nirvana? or ?Enlightenment? at 35 at Gaya in Magadha (Bihar) under the Pipal
  • Delivered the first sermon at Sarnath where his five disciples had His first sermon is called ?Dharmachakrapravartan? or ?Turning of the Wheel of Law?.
  • Attained Mahaparinirvana at Kushinagar (identical with village Kasia in Deoria district of UP) in 483 BC at the age of 80 in the Malla

DELHI POLICE/SI/ASI?COACHING FOR BETTER RESULTS

Competition Gurukul is a premier institute for Delhi Police/SI/ASI?Exam Coaching. You can visit our center to register your slot for fresh batches. You will be guided by our counsellor from Monday to Saturday at scheduled timing of 9 AM to 8 PM.

For More Information Contact

Competition Gurukul
A-1/17, Janakpuri, Main Najafgarh Road,
Opp Metro Pillar 636, New Delhi ? 110058

Delhi Police/SI/ASI Chapter On Vedic Age

Competition Gurukul presents the latest & revised notes for Delhi Police/SI/ASI Recruitment Exam. All aspirants are advised to go through the notes thoroughly.

The early Aryans settled in Eastern Afghanistan, modern Pakistan, Punjab and parts of western UP The whole region in which the Aryans first settled in India is called the ?Land of Seven Rivers or Sapta Sindhava? (The Indus and its five tributaries and the Saraswati).

?Political Organisation?

  • Monarchial form, tribe was known as Jan and its king as RaJan He was the leader in battle and protector of His office was not hereditary and was selected among the clan?s men. The rajan was not an absolute monarch, for the government of the tribe was in part the responsibility of the tribal councils like sabha, samiti, gana and vidhata. Even women attended sabha and vidhata.
  • Many clans (Vish) formed a tribe. The basic social unit was the Kula or the family and Kulapa was the head of the?family.
  • The king was assisted by a number of officers of which purohita was the most important. Next? important functionary was the Senani (leader of the army), although there was no regular or standing The military technique of the early Aryans was much advanced. The Aryans succeeded everywhere because they possessed chariots driven by horses.

  • There was no regular revenue system and the kingdom was maintained by the voluntary tribute (Bali) of his subjects and the booty won in
  • Villages were headed by Gramini who used to represent village in sabha and Later, Gramini was handed over the charge of Vrajapati also (an officer who enjoyed authority over the pasture ground).

Social Life?

  • When the Aryans entered India there was already a class division in their tribal
  • As they settled among the dark aboriginals, the Aryans seem to have laid greater stress than before on purity of blood, and class divisions hardened, to exclude those dasas who had found a place in the Aryan society, and those Aryans who had intermarried with the dasas and adopted their

  • Gradually, the tribal society got divided into three groups warriors, priests and commoners. Later, the fourth dasas
    or shudra was also added.
  • The term varna was used for color, the Aryans being fair, the dasas dark.
  • Family was the basic unit of society. The family was patriarchal in nature. But women enjoyed equal power with men. Marriage was usually monogamous and indissoluble, but there are few instances of polyandry, levirate and widow-marriage. There are no examples of child-marriage. The marriageable age seems to have been 16 to 17.

  • The word ?Arya? came to refer to any person who was respected.
  • Aryans were fond of soma, sura, food and dresses. Soma was drunk at sacrifices and its use was sanctified by religion. Sura was purely secular and more potent, and was diapproved by the priestly poets.
  • The Aryans loved music, and played the flute, lute and harp. There are references to singing and dancing, and to dancing girls. People also delighted in gambling. They enjoyed chariot racing. Both men and women wore ornaments.

Early Vedic Period Economy?

  • Their bronze smiths were highly skilled, and produced tools and weapons much superior to those of Harappan culture. There were artisans like carpenters, weavers, cobblers, potters, etc.
  • Aryans followed a mixed economy ? pastoral and agricultural ? in which cattle played a predominant part.
  • Most of their wars were fought for cow (most important form of wealth). Cattle were in fact a sort of currency, and values were reckoned in heads of cattle (man?s life was equivalent to that of 100 cows), but they were not held sacred at this time. The horse was almost as important as the cow.

  • Standard unit of exchange was cow. At the same time coins were also there (gold coins like Nishkq, Krishnal and Satmana).
  • Gavyuti was used as a measure of distance and Godhuli as a measure of time.
  • Lived in fortified mud settlements.

  • Physicians were there called ?Bhishakas?.
  • The staple crop was ?yava?, which meant barley.

Vedic Period Religion?

  • The Aryans personified the natural forces and looked upon them as living beings.
  • The most important divinity was Indra who played the role of warlord (breaker of forts ? Purandar, also associated with storm and thunder).
  • The second position was held by Agni (fire-god). He is considered as an intermediary between gods and men.

  • Varuna occupied the third position. He personified water and was supposed to uphold the natural order. He was ethnically the highest of all Rigvedic gods.
  • Soma was considered to be the god of plants. Maruts personified the storms. Some female deities are also mentioned, like Aditi and Usha, who represented the appearance of dawn.
  • Didn?t believe in erecting temples or idol worship. Worshipped in open air through yajnas.

DELHI POLICE/SI/ASI?COACHING FOR BETTER RESULTS

Competition Gurukul is a premier institute for Delhi Police/SI/ASI?Exam Coaching. You can visit our center to register your slot for fresh batches. You will be guided by our counsellor from Monday to Saturday at scheduled timing of 9 AM to 8 PM.

For More Information Contact

Competition Gurukul
A-1/17, Janakpuri, Main Najafgarh Road,
Opp Metro Pillar 636, New Delhi ? 110058

Delhi Police/SI/ASI History Chapter on Indus Valley Civilization in India

Competition Gurukul presents the latest & revised notes for Delhi Police/SI/ASI Recruitment Exam. All aspirants are advised to go through the notes thoroughly.

Ancient Civilizations in India

  • The Indus Valley Civilization was an ancient civilization thriving along the Indus River and the Ghaggar-Hakra River in what is now Pakistan and north-western India. Among other names for this civilization is the Harappan Civilization, in reference to its first excavated city of Harappa.
  • An alternative term for the culture is Saraswati-Sindhu Civilization, based on the fact that most of the Indus Valley sites have been found at the Halkra-Ghaggar River.
  • B. Dayaram Sahni first discovered Harappa (on Ravi) in 1921. R.D. Banerjee discovered Mohenjodaro or ?Mound of the Dead? (on Indus) in 1922. Sir John Marshal played a crucial role in both these.
  • Harappan Civilization forms part of the proto history of India and belongs to the Bronze Age.
  • Mediterranean, Proto-Australoid, Mongoloids and Alpines formed the bulk of the population, though the first two were more numerous.
  • More than 100 sites belonging to this civilization have been excavated.
  • According to radio-carbon dating, it spread from the year 2500 ? 1750 BC.
  • Copper, bronze, silver, gold were known but not iron.

Geographical Extent :

  • Covered parts of Punjab, Sindh, Baluchistan, Gujarat, Rajasthan and some parts of Western UP. It extended from Manda in Jammu in the north to Daimabad in the south and from Alamgirpur in W. UP to Sutkagendor in Baluchistan in the west.
  • Major sites in Pakistan are Harappa (on Ravi in W Punjab), Mohenjodaro (on Indus), Chanhu-Daro (Sindh), etc. In India, major sites are Lothal, Rangpur and Surkotda (Gujarat), Kalibangan (Rajasthan), Banwali (Hissar), and Alamgirpur (Western UP).
  • Largest and the latest site in India is Dholavira in Gujarat. Dr. J.R Joshi and Dr. R.S. Bisht were involved in

Indus Valley Civilization Town Planning?

  • Elaborate town-planning. It followed the Grid System. Roads were well cut, dividing the town? into ?large rectangular or square blocks. Lamp posts at intervals indicate the existence of? street lightning.? Flanking the streets, lanes and by-lanes were well-planned
  • Used burnt bricks of good quality as the building Elsewhere in the contemporary world, mud-bricks were used.
  • Houses, often of two or more storey, varied in size, but were quite monotonous a square courtyard, around which were a number of rooms. No window faced the streets. The houses had tiled bathrooms.
  • Good drainage Drains were made of mortar, lime and gypsum and covered with large brick slabs for easy cleaning. Shows developed sense of health and sanitation.
  • The towns were divided into 2 parts: Upper part or Citadel and Lower The Citadel was an oblong artificial platform some 30-50 feet high and about 400-200 yards in area It was enclosed by a thick (13 m at Harappa) crenelated mud-brick wall. In Citadel public buildings, granaries, important workshops and religious buildings were there. In lower part people used to live.
  • In Mohanjodaro, a big public bath (Great Bath) measuring 12 m by 7 m and 4 m deep, has been found. StepsGreat Bath – Mohenjodaro Image from Educational site

led from either end to the surface, with changing rooms alongside. It was probably used for ritual ?bathing.

Indus Valley Civilization Economic Life

Indus Valley Civilization Agriculture :

  • The Indus people sowed seeds in the flood plains in November, when the flood water receded, and reaped their harvests of wheat and barley in Apr, before the advent of the next flood.
  • Grew wheat, barley, rai, peas, sesamum, mustard, rice (in Lothal), cotton, dates, melon, etc. The Indus people were the first to produce cotton.
  • In Kalibangan, fields were ploughed with wooden ploughs.
  • Domesticated animals on large scale. Besides the cattle, cats and dogs were domesticated. Horse wasn?t in regular use but elephant was. Remains of horse at Surkotda and dogs with men in grave at Ropar have been discovered.
  • Produced sufficient to feed themselves.
  • Food grains were stored in granaries.

Trade and Commerce in Ancient India :

  • Well-knit external and internal trade. There was no metallic money in circulation and trade was carried through Barter System.
  • Weights and measures of accuracy existed in Harappan culture (found at Lothal). The weights were made of limestone, steatite, etc and were generally cubical in shape.
  • 16 was the unit of measurement (16, 64,160, 320).
  • Flint tool-work, shell-work, bangle making, pottery making, etc were practiced. Raw material for these came from different sources: gold from N.Karnataka, silver and lapis lazuli from Afghanistan and Iran, copper from Khetri and Baluchistan, etc.
  • Bead making factory existed in Chanhudaro and Lothal. They were items of export.
  • A dockyard has been discovered at Lothal. Rangpur, Somnath and Balakot functioned as seaports. Sutkagendor and Sutkakoh functioned as outlets.
  • The inland transport was done with bullock carts.
  • Every merchant or mercantile family probably had a seal bearing an emblem, often of a religious character, and a name or brief description, on one side. The standard Harappa seal was a square or oblong plaque made of steatite stone. The primary purpose of the seal was probably to mark the ownership of property, but they may have also served as amulets.
  • The Mesopotamian records from about 2350 BC onwards refer to trade relations with Meluha, the ancient name of the Indus region. Harappan seals and other material has been found at Mesopotamia. Also traded with Sumer.

Indus Valley Civilization Art and Craft :

  • The Harappan culture belongs to the Bronze Age.
  • Bronze was made by mixing tin and copper. Tools were mostly made of copper and bronze. For making bronze, copper was obtained from Khetri in Rajasthan and from Baluchistan, and tin from Afghanistan.
    • Cotton fabrics quite common. Woolen in
    • Very fond of ornaments (of gold, silver, ivory, copper, bronze, precious stones) and dressing Ornaments were worn by both men and women. Women wore heavy bangles in profusion, large necklaces, ear-rings, bracelets, fingure-rings, girdles, nose studs and anklets. The Harappans were also an expert bead makers.
    • Potter?s wheel was in Their pottery was red or black pottery. Played dice games. Their favourite pastime was Gambling.
    • The Harappans most notable artistic achievement was their seal gravings, esp. those of animals. The red sandstone torso of a man is particularly impressive for its However, the most impressive of the figurines is perhaps the bronze image of the famous dancing girl (identified as devadasi), found at Mohenjodaro.
    • For their children, they made cattle-toys with movable heads, model monkeys which could slide down a string, little toy-carts, and whistles shaped like birds, all of

The Indus Valley Civilization Religious Life :

  • Main object of worship was the Mother Goddess. But the upper classes preferred a god, nude with two horns, much similar to Pasupati Represented on the seal is a figure with three horned heads in a yogic posture. He is surrounded by an elephant, a tiger and a rhinoceros, and below his throne is a buffalo. Near his feet are two deer. Pashupatinath represented male deity.
  • Phallus (lingam) and yoni worship was also
  • Many trees (pipal), animals (bull), birds (dove, pigeon) and stones were worshipped. Unicorn was ?also However, no temple has been found, though idolatry was practiced.
  • At Kalibangan and Lothal fire altars have been
  • Although no definite proof is available with regard to the disposal of the dead, a broad view is that probably there were three methods of disposing the dead ? complete burial, burial after exposure of the body to birds and beasts, and cremation
  • The discovery of cinerary urns and jars, goblets or vessels with ashes, bones and charcoal may, however, suggest that during the flourishing period of the Indus Valley culture the third method was generally In Harappa, there is one place where evidence of coffin burial is there. The people probably believed in ghosts and evil spirits, as amulets were worn.
  • Dead bodies were placed in the north-south

Indus Valley Civilization Script :

  • The script is not alphabetical but pictographic (about 600 undeciphered pictographs).

  • The script has not been deciphered so far, but overlaps of letters show that it was written from right to left in the first line and left to right in the second line. This style is called ?Boustrophedon?.

  • Many historians have given various theories regarding the original place of the
  • However, the Central Asian theory, given by Max Muller, is the most accepted It states that the Aryans were semi-nomadic pastoral people and originated from area around the Caspian Sea in Central Asia.
  • Entered India probably through Khyber Pass (in Hindukush Mountains) around 1500
  • The holy book of Iran ?Zend Avesta? indicates entry of Aryans to India via

DELHI POLICE/SI/ASI?COACHING FOR BETTER RESULTS

Competition Gurukul is a premier institute for Delhi Police/SI/ASI?Exam Coaching. You can visit our center to register your slot for fresh batches. You will be guided by our counsellor from Monday to Saturday at scheduled timing of 9 AM to 8 PM.

For More Information Contact

Competition Gurukul
A-1/17, Janakpuri, Main Najafgarh Road,
Opp Metro Pillar 636, New Delhi ? 110058

Delhi Police/SI/ASI History Chapter on Prehistory of India

Competition Gurukul presents the latest & revised notes for Delhi Police/SI/ASI Recruitment Exam. All aspirants are advised to go through the notes thoroughly & attempt all the questions given at the end of this chapter

Indian Prehistory

  • The fossils of the early human being have not been found in India. A hint of the earliest human presence in India is indicated by stone tools of about 250,000 BC obtained from the deposits.
  • However, recent reported artifacts from Bori in Maharashtra suggest the appearance of human beings in India around 1.4 million years ago.
  • From their first appearance to around 3000 BC humans used only stone tools for different purposes.
  • This period is, therefore, known as the Stone Age, which has been divided into Paleolithic (early or Old Stone) Age, Mesolithic (Middle Stone) Age, and Neolithic (New Stone) Age.
  • The Paleolithic Age in India (500,000 BC ? 8000 BC):
  • In India it developed in the Pleistocene period or the Ice Age.b.
  • The earliest traces of human existence in India go back to 500,000 BC.
  • The Paleolithic sites are spread in practically all parts of India except the alluvial plains of Indus and Ganga.
  • The people of this age were food gathering people who lived on hunting and gathering wild fruits and vegetables.
  • Man during this period used tools of unpolished, undressed rough stones and lived in cave and rock shelters. They had no knowledge of agriculture, fire or pottery of any material.
  • They mainly used hand axes, cleavers, choppers, blades, scrapers and burin. Their tools were made of hard rock called ?quartzite?. Hence Paleolithic men are also called ?Quartzite Men?.
  • Homo sapiens first appeared in the last of this phase.
  • It has been pointed out that Paleolithic men belonged to the Negrito race.
  • The Paleolithic Age in India has been divided into three phases according to the nature of stone tools used by the people and also according to the nature of change in the climate ? Early or lower Paleolithic, Middle Paleolithic and Upper Paleolithic.
  • The Early Paleolithic Age covers the greater part of the Ice Age. Its characteristic tools are hand axes, cleavers and choppers. Such tools have been found in Soan and Sohan river valley (now in Pakistan) and in the Belan Valley in the Mirzapur district of UP In this period climate became less humid.
  • Middle Paleolithic Phase is characterized by the use of stone tools made of flakes mainly scrapers, borers and blade like tools. The sites are found in the valleys of Soan, Narmada and Tungabhadra rivers.
  • In the Upper Paleolithic Phase, the climate became warm and less humid. This stage is marked by burins and scrapers. Such tools have been found in APKarnataka, Maharashtra, Bhopal and Chhota Nagpur plateau.

The Mesolithic Era History (8000 BC ? 6000 BC) :

  • In this age, climate became warm and dry. Climate changes brought about changes in fauna and flora and made it possible for human beings to move to new areas. Since then, there haven?t been major changes in the climate.
  • The characteristic tools of the Mesolithic Age are known as Microliths-pointed, cresconic blades, scrapers, etc, all made of stone.
  • The people lived on hunting, fishing and food gathering; at a later stage they also domesticated animals.
  • The last phase of this age saw the beginning of plane cultivation.
  • Various Mesolithic sites are found in the Chhotanagpur region, Central India and also south of the Krishna River.
  • In the Belan valley of Vindhyas, all the three phases of the Paleolithic followed by the Mesolithic and then by the Neolithic have been found in sequence. Similar is the case with the middle part of the Narmada valley.

The History of Neolithic Era (6000 BC ? 1000 BC) :

  • In India Neolithic Age is not earlier than 6000 BC and at some places in South and Eastern India; it is as late as 1000 BC.
  • During this phase people were again depending on stone implements. But now they used stones other than quartzite for making tools, which were more lethal, more finished and more polished.
  • Neolithic men cultivated land and grew fruits and corn like ragi and horse gram. They domesticated cattle, sheep and goat
  • They knew about making fire and making pottery, first by hand and then by potters wheel. They also painted and decorated their pottery.
  • They lived in caves and decorated their walls with hunting and dancing scenes. They also knew the art of making boats. They could also weave cotton and wool to make cloth.
  • In the later phase of Neolithic phase people led a more settled life and lived in circular and rectangular houses made of mud and reed.
  • Important sites of this age are Burzahom and Gufkral in J&K (famous for pit dwelling, stone tools and graveyard in house), Maski, Brahmagiri, Tekkalakota in Karnataka, Paiyampatti in Tamil Nadu, Piklihal and Hallur in AP, Garo hils in Meghalaya, Chirand and Senuwar in Bihar (known for remarkable bone tools), Amri, Kotdiji, etc.
  • Koldihawa in UP revealed a three fold cultural sequence: Neolithic, Chalcolithic and Iron Age.

Chalcolithic Period :

  • The end of the Neolithic Period saw the use of metals of which copper was the first. A culture based on the use of stone and copper arrived. Such a culture is called Chalcolithic which means the stone-copper phase.
  • Apart from stone tools, hand axes and other objects made of copperware also used.
  • The Chalcolithic people used different types of pottery of which black and red pottery was most popular. It was wheel made and painted with white line design.
  • These people were not acquainted with burnt? ? They? generally? lived? in? thatched? houses.? It? was? a village economy.
  • They venerated the mother goddess and worshiped the bull.
  • Important sites of this phase are spread in Rajasthan, Maharashtra, West Bengal, Bihar, MP, etc.?

DELHI POLICE/SI/ASI?COACHING FOR BETTER RESULTS

Competition Gurukul is a premier institute for Delhi Police/SI/ASI?Exam Coaching. You can visit our center to register your slot for fresh batches. You will be guided by our counsellor from Monday to Saturday at scheduled timing of 9 AM to 8 PM.

For More Information Contact

Competition Gurukul
A-1/17, Janakpuri, Main Najafgarh Road,
Opp Metro Pillar 636, New Delhi ? 110058

Important Educational Institutional Bodies in India

Important Educational Institutional Bodies in India
???? ??? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ?????

Higher Education in India is one of the largest and oldest systems of higher education in the world

Universities in India

The University system has a number of different types of institutions and there are wide variations in their missions, goals and objectives.

A. Central University

While other universities in the country are established by the State Governments, a central University in India is formed by the Government of India, by an Act Of Parliament

Au_science_faculty

University of Allahabad?is the?Oldest
among all central Universities in India

i. The Government of India is responsible for arranging, allocating and distributing financial resources required by the University Grants Commission (UGC) for the establishment of Central Universities in India
ii. Currently, there are 46 universities in India by April 2015
iii. Delhi & Uttar Pradesh has highest number of central universities with 5 each.

B. State?University
The State Governments establish and plan for the colleges and universities in the states.
i. Currently, there are 332 state universities in India by April 2015
ii. Uttar Pradesh has highest number of state universities with 25, followed by Gujarat with 24, Karnataka with 23, Tamil Nadu with 22, West Bengal & Rajasthan with 21 each, and Andhra Pradesh & Maharashtra with 20 state universities each.

C. Deemed?University

UGC is entrusted with another responsibility of giving ?Deemed? status to any educational institution by which:
i. UGC can grant fund to them;
ii. UGC can make such institution enable to design their own syllabus and course work;
iii. Such institutions also get the authority to set its own guidelines regarding admission and fees.
iv. ?Currently, there are 128?deemed universities in India by April 2015 with Tamil Nadu has maximum number of deemed university in country with 28, followed by Maharashtra with 21 and Karnataka with 14

D. Private University

In the past few years, the private universities have mushroomed with total 216 Private Universities in country. Rajasthan has the maximum private universities with 40, followed by Uttar Pradesh with 23 and Gujarat with 20

Formal & Distance Education?in India

IGNOU

IGNOU_new

? Indra Gandhi National Open University was established in 1985
? Purpose :- To democratize higher education & to provide cost-effective, quality education to large sections of Indian population
? Is a world leader in distance education
? Serves the educational aspirations of over 2.6 million students in India and 36 other countries through the 21 School of Studies and a network of 61 regional centers, around 3000 learner support centers and around 60 overseas centers.
? Functions
i. Offers various academic programmes that lead to Certificates, Diplomas, and Degrees
ii. In it?s capacity as an Apex Body,?it co-ordinates and monitors distance education system throughout the country

Professional/Technical?& General Education?in India

1. UGC

UGC-11-aug-14-big

? The University Grants Commission has the unique distinction of being the only grant-giving agency in the country
? Responsibilities of UGC
i. Providing funds;
ii. Co-ordination, determination and maintenance of standards in institutions of higher education

2. NCERT

unnamed

? The National Council of Educational Research and Training was established in September 1961 in New Delhi as an autonomous body.
? Objectives
i. Qualitative improvement in the education
ii. Provide qualitative text books
iii. Improvement in the quality of teachers education

SSC/Banking/Govt Jobs COACHING FOR BETTER RESULTS

Competition Gurukul?is a premier institute for CTET Coaching.?You can visit our center?to register your slot. You will be guided by our?counsellor from Monday to Saturday?at scheduled timing of?9 AM to 8 PM.

For More Information Contact

Competition Gurukul
A-1/17, Janakpuri, Main Najafgarh Road,
Opp Metro Pillar 636, New Delhi ? 110058

English Tips & tricks on Articles for Banking , SSC, and General Competition Exams

Definition

The adjectives a, an and the are called Articles.

Types of Articles

Articles are basically categorized into two broad categories

A.?Indefinite article?A/An
B.?Definite article?The

1277101816

Use of Indefinite Article?A/An

a. An is usually used before a word beginning with a?vowel sound
For example
(i) Radha is an intelligent girl.
(ii) He is an MP. ? ? (sound of ?em?p where e is a vowel)
(iii) You are an honest man. ? ?(sound of ?own?est where o is a vowel)

b. ?A is used before a word beginning with a?consonant sound
For example
(i) He is a university student. ?(sound of ?you?niversal where y is a consonant)
(ii) He is a European. ? ?(sound of ?you?ropean where y is a consonant)
(iii) He is a one-eyed man.

Article1

c. A/An is used before a singular countable noun only when it?is mentioned for the first time representing no
particular person or thing.
For example
(i) He has an oxen.
(ii) She is a landlord.
(iii) A boy came to my home.
d. A/An is used before a singular countable noun which is?used as the representative of a class of things or persons.
For example
(i) A lion is a dangerous animal.
(ii) A pupil should obey his teacher.
(iii) A dog is a faithful animal.

e. A/An is used to make a common noun of a proper noun.
For example
(i) My neighbour is a philanthropist.
(ii) She is a Sania Mirza.
(iii) His brother is a PM.

f. A/An is used in exclamations before singular countable?nouns.
For example
(i) What an interesting video
(ii) What a pretty girl
(iii) What a lovely morning

countable-and-uncountable-nouns-personal-care-products-basic-iii-1-2-638

g. A/An is used in its original sense of one or any.
For example
(i) He wants a car.
(ii) There are not fourteen inches in a foot.
(iii) He bought a pen.

Use of Definite Article?The

a. when we talk about a particular person or thing or one?already mentioned.
For example
(i) Give me the pen which you bought last Saturday.
(ii) The book you want is out of stock.
(iii) I met a boy. The boy was handsome.

b. when a singular noun represents a whole class.
For example
(i) The rose is a beautiful flower.
(ii) The dog loves comfort.
(iii) The Neem is a useful tree.

Article3
c. Before the first noun in ?noun + preposition + noun??construction.
For example
(i) The Rama?of Ramayana is an ideal king.
(ii) The diamond of South Africa is famous.
(iii) He likes the food of Jaipur.

d. Before names of mountain-ranges.
For example
The Himalayas, The Alps, The Aravallis

e. Before names of groups of islands.
For example
The West Indies,?The Andamans

f. Before names of rivers, oceans, gulfs, deserts and forests.
For example
The Ganges, ?The Nile,?The Amazon, ?The Indian Ocean,?The Gulf of Mexico, The Thar deseert, The
Black Forest

g. Before names of religious and mythological books.
For example
The Ramayana, The Quran, The Bible

h. Before names of newspapers and magazines.
For example
The Times of India, The?Outlook

i. Before names of heavenly bodies, directions and things?unique of their kind
For example
The sun, The earth,?The moon, The?equator

Note that ?The? is not used before the words ?Parliament, Heaven, God, Hell ?.

j. before names of historical buildings, places and events.
For example
The Red Fort, The Taj Mahal, ?The Siachen, The Dandi March

k. Before musical instruments.
For example
(i) He can play the flute.
(ii) She is fond of playing the guitar.

Note that?When musical instruments are used as countable?nouns, A/An is used.
For example
(i) We bought a sitar for her.
(ii) I gifted him a violin.

l. Before religious communities and political parties.
For example
The Hindus, The Sikhs, The Bhartiya Janta Party

m. Before names of ships, aeroplanes and trains.
For example
The INS Vikrant, The?Qatar Airlines,?The Rajdhani?Express

n. Before the words denoting physical positions or
For example
The centre, The top,?The front, The back
Further,??before parts of body
For example
(ii) He pulled the dog by the tail.
(ii)?Sohan?was hit on the head.

o. Before names of government departments and armed?forces.
For example
The Legislative, The Judiciary, The Executive, The Air Force, The Army

p. Before the dates of months.
For example
The 21st of December, The 5th June

Note that before the ordinals, we also use the articles
For example
The first, The third, The ninth

q. before the superlative degree.
For example
(i) He is?the best guy for this job.
(ii) She is the sweetest?girl in the class.

r. Before the names of a few countries that form federations and provinces.
For example
The USA, ?The Netherlands, The USSR, The Republic of China, ?The?Punjab
t. Before comparative degree in case of making a choice between the two.
For example
(i) He?is the tougher of the two guys.
(ii) She?is the prettier of the two.

Zero?Articles

Sometimes there is no need for using any kind of article. Such articles are known as zero articles.?This term used here is not universal but it is aptly used to denote the reference of omission of articles.

The articles a, an, the are omitted
a. Before names of days and months.
For example
(i) She will go on Monday.
(ii) They are getting married in January.

b. Before names of languages.
For example
(i) He cannot speak French.
(ii) She is learning Marathi.

c. Before names of subjects.
For example
(i) She has no interest in mathematics.
(ii) Biology is his favourite subject.

d. Before names of diseases.
For example
(i) AIDS is spreading like wild fire.
(ii) He died of cancer.

Note that??The? is used before the names of a few diseases.
For example
the plague, the measles,the mumps,

e. Before names of festivals and seasons.
For example
(i) He will go to USA?in winter.
(ii) She celebrated Diwali?with her friends.
But note that
(i) He will go to Canada in the winter season.
(ii) She went to Delhi in the Diwali holidays.

f. Before names of sports.
For example
(i) She plays tennis.
(ii) We like cricket.

g. Before names of meals.
For example
(i) They take lunch at 2 pm.
(ii) Breakfast is ready.

h. Before school, college, church, prison, hospital, bed,?market, when these places are visited or used for their
primary purpose.
For example
(i) She goes to temple?on Sunday.
(ii) The criminal was sent to prison.

i. before man, life, death, art, science, when these words?are used in the widest sense.
For example
(i) Science has developed much in the past fifty years.
(ii) Man is mortal.

CTET COACHING FOR BETTER RESULTS

Competition Gurukul?is a premier institute for CTET Coaching.?You can visit our center?to register your slot. You will be guided by ourcounsellor from Monday to Saturday?at scheduled timing of?9 AM to 8 PM.

For More Information Contact

Competition Gurukul
A-1/17, Janakpuri, Main Najafgarh Road,
Opp Metro Pillar 636, New Delhi ? 110058