Fresh batches for IBPS PO & Clerical Nov/Dec-2016 Exam Coaching

Competitition Gurukul brings you fresh batches for IBPS PO & Clerical Nov/Dec-2016 exam coaching program. These batches are started with an aim to provide quality and result oriented coaching for the IBPS PO and Clerk CWE-2016?aspirants. The batch timings are kept as per candidates’ convenience ?- 10 am to 12 pm in morning?and 6:00 pm to 8 pm in evening. Moreover, the batch strength is also kept moderate up to?30 students in each batch so that the problems and doubts of the candidates can be considered effectively. The study materials are updated as per the exam specification and the assignment as well as assessment tests are prepared in keeping the current exam pattern in mind. Your success in this?exam is kept as the main motto of this coaching program. So, come and become a part of this fascinating journey of IBPS PO and Clerk CWE-2016?coaching program at Competition Gurukul.


Competition Gurukul ???? ??? ???? ?? IBPS PO ?? Clerical Nov/Dec-2016 exam ???? coaching program ????? ???? fresh batch ?? ??? ??? ?????? ???? ???? ?? ?????? ???? ?? ????| ?? coaching program ?? fresh batch ?? ???? ????????? ?? ??? ??? ??? ?? ?? IBPS ?? PO & Clerk ?? ?? ?? ??? ?????? ??| ????? ?? ????? Institute ?? ?????????? ?? Coaching program ?? ????? ??? ????? ?? ???? ??? ??? ?? IBPS ?? PO ??? Clerk ?? ?? ????? ???? exam ??? ??? ????? ???| ???? ??? ????? ?????? ???? ??| ?? coaching program ?? batches ?? timing ????????? ?? ??????? ?? ?????? ??? ??? ?? – ???? ?? timing 10 am ?? 12 pm ?? ?? ?? ??? ?? timing 6 pm ?? 8 pm ?? ?? ???????? ???? ??? ??| ???? ????? batch ?? size 30 ????????? ??? ?? ?? ??? ??? ?? ???? ??? ?? problems ?? doubts ?? ??????: ????? ??? ???? ???? ?? ?????? ?? ???| ???? ?? coaching program ?? study materials ?? ??????? ?? exam ?? syllabus ?? ????? ??? ???? ????? ?? ?? ??? ?? assignments ??? assessment tests ?? ?? exam ??? ?????? ????? ???? ??| ?? IBPS ?? ?PO ??? Clerk ?? ?? ????? ???? exam ??? ?? ??? ??, ??? ?? coaching program ?? ????? ???????? ????? ??? ??| ??: ?? ??? ?? Competition Gurukul ?? IBPS PO & Clerk Nov/Dec-2016 ?? ?Exam ???? ???? coaching ????????? ?? ?????? ?? ??? ?????? ???|

For More Information, Contact (?????? ??????? ?? ???, ?????? ????)

Janak Puri??Branch

Competition Gurukul
A-1/17, Janakpuri, Main Najafgarh Road,
Opp Metro Pillar 636, New Delhi ? 110058

Phone No. : 011-41668088

Uttam Nagar Branch

A-38, 39, 40, Opposite Metro Pillar no: 641,
Uttam Nagar, Near Uttam Nagar East Metro Station, New Delhi

Phone no. :9716942388

Banking Awareness Practice Set on Banking Structure in India

Banking Structure in India?

1. What is the current number of Local Area Banks in India?
a. Four
b. Seven
c. Eight
d. Six

Answer: Four
Explanation: As of May 2015, these four local area banks are: 1.Coastal Local Area Bank Ltd ? Vijayawada (Andhra Pradesh) 2.Capital Local Area Bank Ltd ? Phagwara (Punjab)
3.Krishna Bhima Samruddhi Local Area Bank Ltd, Mahbubnagar (Andhra Pradesh)
4.Subhadra Local Area Bank Ltd., Kolhapur (Maharashtra)

2. Which of the following is NOT an advantage of Unit Banking?
a. They have high risk diversification
b. The management enjoys more autonomy
c. They have?fast decision making
d. All of above are advantages of Unit Banking

Answer: They have risk diversification
Explanation: Due to small size and due to unit structure; the decision making in unit banks is very fast. The management in unit banks enjoy more autonomy and more discretionary powers. However, due to single units, the risk is not distributed or diversified

3. Nainital Bank is a subsidiary of which of the following banks?
a. Bank of India
b. FDCI Bank
c. Bank of Baroda
d. Allahabad Bank

Answer: Bank of Baroda

4. Anywhere Banking is a common term used in Banking Sector, what does it refers to __
a.?The customer can deposit/ withdraw cash in foreign countries
b.?The customer can deposit/ withdraw cash at any branch other than the branch in which he holds the account
c.?The customer can deposit/ withdraw cash at any bank other than the bank in which he holds the account
d. The customer can deposit/ withdraw cash at all points of sale

Answer: The customer can deposit/ withdraw cash at any branch other than the branch in which he holds the account
Explanation: Anywhere Banking means that the customer can deposit/ withdraw cash at any branch other than the branch in which he holds the account. Anywhere banking frees the customer from geographical boundaries and limitations and gives the flexibility to the customer to use his account across the board

5. Which of the following bodies regulates the Regional Rural Banks?
a. RBI
c. Department of Rural Development
d. State Government

Answer: NABARD

Explanation: They are regulated by NABARD; which is a subsidiary of RBI. Other banks are regulated by RBI directly. Report Error

6. In which year, Cooperative Societies Act was enacted?
a. 1910
b. 1912
c. 1913
d. 1915

Answer: 1912 Report Error

7. Which of the following rural cooperatives in India work at village or grassroots level?
a. State Cooperative Banks
b. District Central Cooperative Banks
c. Primary Agricultural Credit Societies
d. Primary Cooperative Agriculture and Rural Development Banks (PCARDBS)

Answer: Primary Agricultural Credit Societies

8. For the regional rural banks, which among the following is the correct share of Central, State and Sponsor Bank?
a. 50%, 40%, 10%
b. 50%, 35%, 15%
c. 50%, 15%, 35%
d. 40%, 50%, 10%

Answer: 50%, 15%, 35%
In RRBs:
1 . 50% share shall be held by the central government,
2. 15% by the concerned state government, and
3. 35% by the sponsor bank.
The RRB amendment act 2014 has allowed the RRBs to raise their capital from sources other than the central and state governments, and sponsor banks. In such a case, the combined shareholding of the central government and the sponsor bank cannot be less than 51%. Further, if the shareholding of the state government in the RRB is reduced below 15%, the central government would need to consult the concerned state government. Report Error

9. Which Indian bank has opened its first branch in China in May, 2015?
a. Axis Bank
b. HDFC Bank
c. ICICI Bank
d. Corporation Bank

Answer: ICICI Bank Country?s top private sector bank

Explanation: ICICI bank has opened its first branch in China. It was inaugurated by Prime Minister Narendra Modi. The bank will be based in Shanghai. ICICI Bank with presence in 17 countries earlier had a representative office in China, which it had opened over 10 years ago in 2003.

10. The owners of the cooperative bank are also its __
a. Customers
b. Debtors
c. Creditors
d. All of above

Answer: All of above
Explanation: A cooperative is jointly owned enterprise in which same people are its customers who are also its owners. Thus, basic difference between scheduled commercial banks and scheduled cooperative banks is in their holding pattern. Report Error

11. In which of the following types of banking, there is a direct execution of transactions between a bank and its consumers?
a. Retail banking
b. Universal Banking
c. Virtual Banking
d. Unit Banking

Answer: Retail banking
Explanation: When there is a direct execution of transactions between a bank and its consumers, rather than with corporations or other banks, then this type of banking system is known as Retail banking

12. In which country, the Unit Banking System originated?
a. United States
b. United Kingdom
c. France
d. Spain

Answer: United States
Explanation: Unit banking is a system of banking which originated in US. It is a limited way of banking where banks operate only from a single branch (or a few branches in the same area) taking care of local community.

13. In the constitution of India, ?Cooperatives? come under which among the following in the seventh schedule?
a. Union List
b. State List
c. Concurrent List
d. None of them

Answer: State List
Explanation: The item ?Cooperative Societies? is a State Subject in the 7th Schedule via entry 32 of the State List in the Constitution of India. Report Error

14. Bank branches are established under which section of Banking Regulations Act, 1949?
a. Section 20
b. Section 23
c. Section 22
d. Section 10

Answer: Section 23

Explanation: Branch banking involves business of banking via branches. The branches are set up under Section 23 of Banking Regulations Act, 1949. Report Error

15. With reference to various types of Banking, what is ?Mixed Banking???

a. when banks undertake the activities of commercial and investment banking together
b. when banks undertake the activities of wholesale and retail banking together
c. when banks undertake the activities of offline and online banking together
d. when banks undertake the activities of commercial and cooperative banking together

Answer: when banks undertake the activities of commercial and investment banking together

16. Which country has largest shadow banking market in the world??

a. China
b. UK
c. Netherland
d. USA

Answer: USA
Explanation: Shadow banking refers to the activities of financial institutions that operate outside government-regulated banking systems. United States has the largest shadow banking market followed UK and China

17. What is the share of the Foreign Banks in the branch network in India?
a. Less than 1 %
b. Around 5%
c. Around 3%
d. Around 6%

Answer: Less than 1%
Explanation: Foreign Banks account for less than 1% of the total branch network in the country

18. Which among the following types of Banking is most helpful in cross selling?
a. Virtual Banking
b. Relationship Banking
c. Wholesale Banking
d. Personal Banking

Answer: Relationship Banking

Explanation: Relationship banking is a banking system in which banks make deliberate efforts to understand customer needs and offer him products accordingly

19. Which of the following is the first financial institution of India that adopted the Universal Banking System?
b. SBI
d. None of the above

Answer: ICICI
Explanation: Universal banking is a one-stop shop of financial products and services. The Industrial Credit and Investment Corporation of India Limited (ICICI) is the first financial institution of India that adopted the Universal banking system. It was set up in January 1955 as a joint stock company with support from the Government of India, the World Bank, the Commonwealth Development Finance Corporation, and other foreign institutions.

20. A commercial bank will launch a medium term note (MTN) programme to ___
a. Provide loans
b. Raise Funds
c. Sell Equity
d. Purchase shares

Answer: Raise Funds
Explanation: Medium term note (MTN) is a debt bond which usually matures in 5 to 10 years. Obviously it is used for raising funds in domestic or international markets. Recently Union Bank of India has hit the global debt market to raise around USD 500 million through bond issuance


Competition Gurukul is a premier institute for Banking Exam Coaching. You can visit our center to register your slot for fresh batches. You will be guided by our counsellor from Monday to Saturday at scheduled timing of 9 AM to 8 PM.

For More Information Contact

Competition Gurukul
A-1/17, Janakpuri, Main Najafgarh Road,
Opp Metro Pillar 636, New Delhi ? 110058

Banking Practice Set on Credit Card, Visa or Bank Card

1. What do you mean by an Affinity Card while talking in reference to bank__
a. The Credit Cards that are linked to special organizations
b. The Credit Cards with zero interest rate on repayments
c. The Credit Cards exclusively for the Bank?s employees
d. All of above

Answer:?Option a

2. Name the credit card sponsored by both a bank & retail vendor when a bank ties up with a retail vendor__
a. Retail Credit Card
b. Vendor Card
c. Co-branded Card
d. Cash back Card

Answer: ?Option c

3. When a business entity is authorized to accept cards for the payment of goods and services, it is known as?
a. Acquirer
b. Merchant
c. Issuer
d. Authorised Issuer

Answer: Option b

4. Name the international standard that is responsible to define the shape and size of the I-Cards is __
a. ISO/IEC 5200
b. ISO/IEC 7810
c. ISO/IEC 14000
d. ISO/IEC 5210

Answer: Option b

5. What is the validity period of a Kisan Credit Card?

a. 3 Years
b. 2 Years
c. 10 Years
d. 5 years

Answer:?Option a

6. Choose the credit card facility that was first to be recognized worldwide?
a. Maestro card
b. Master Card card
c. Diner Card
d. Visa Card

Answer: Option d
Explanation: Visa was accepted internationally and became the first credit card facility to be recognized worldwide. It is a conditional authorization provided by an assigned authority of a country to a person who is not a citizen of that country. Through Visa, he/she can enter its territory and can be remain there for limited duration.

7. Can you name the country from which the concept of Credit Card originated___
a. United Kingdom
b. United States
c. France
d. Australia

Answer: Option b
Explanation: The Credit Card was started using in United States during the period of 1920s for selling fuel to automobile owners. In later 1940s, the credit card usage reached to the customers when Diners Club came into effect for the first time ?in early 1950s. The Bank of America, in the year 1958, had issued the BankAmericard in California state and this became the first successful modern credit card issue in the Banking sector

8. What is the time period during which no interest is charged on a credit card?
a. Term period
b. Loan period
c. Grace period
d. Sanction Period

Answer: Option c
Explanation: Grace periods vary, but usually range from 20 to 30 days depending on the type of credit card and the issuing bank.

9. Which among the following is/are correct statements with reference to the prepaid credit cards?

1. credit facility is offered for the purchaser of the card
2. no interest charged from the purchaser of the card
3. no purchasing fee and monthly fees charged before an arbitrary time period

Select the correct option from the codes given below:
a. Only 1 & 2
b. Only 2 & 3
c. Only 1 & 3
d. 1, 2 & 3

Answer: Option b

10. The significance of cirrus logo on ATM/debit cards is to have cash access facility__?
a. anywhere in India only
b. outside the India only
c. in or outside the India
d. in and outside the India

Answer: option d

11. The Secured credit cards are generally available to the person with __
a. Poor credit history
b. Strong Credit History
c. High Net worth Income
d. Government Job

Answer: Option a
Explanation: These cards require a security deposit to be placed on the card. The credit limit on a secured credit card is typically equal to the deposit made on the card, but it could be more in some cases. These cards are available with both Visa and MasterCard logos on them. .

12. Which international standard governs Credit Card numbers
a.?ISO/IEC 7815
b. ISO/IEC 7810
c. ISO/IEC 7820
d. ISO/IEC 7812

Answer: Option d

13. With reference to the Credit Card number, which digits identify the Credit Card Network?
a. Initial four
b. Last Four
c. Initial two
d. Last two

Answer: Option c
Explanation: The Length of the number is from 14 to 19.
– The first 6 digits are known as the Issuer Identification Number (IIN).
– Out of them, the first 2 or more digits identify the Card network.

14. In terms of Credit Cards, what is a Hot Card?
a. Invalid Card
b. Newly Issued Card
c. Unpaid Card
d. Stolen Card

Answer: c

15. What is the accidental death cover available to holders of Kisan Credit Card?
a. Rs. 1,50,000
b. Rs. 50,000
c. Rs. 120,000
d. Rs. 80,000

Answer: Rs. 50,000
Explanation: The cover is as follows: Death : Rs. 50,000 Disability: Rs. 25000 Maximum Age to enter : 70 years


Competition Gurukul is a premier institute for Banking Exam Coaching. You can visit our center to register your slot for fresh batches. You will be guided by our counsellor from Monday to Saturday at scheduled timing of 9 AM to 8 PM.

For More Information Contact

Competition Gurukul
A-1/17, Janakpuri, Main Najafgarh Road,
Opp Metro Pillar 636, New Delhi ? 110058

Banking Practice Set on History of Banking in India


1. The first bank of India ?Bank of Hindustan? was established in which year?
a. 1870
b. 1770
c. 1795
d. 1880

Answer: ?1770
Explanation: Bank of Hindustan was the first bank in India that was established in 1770 and it was opened at Calcutta under European nation authority. Amazingly, Bank of Hindustan was liquidated in the year 1830-32.

2. Choose the correct locations of all three presidency banks that were established during British India?
a. Calcutta, Bombay, Madras
b. Delhi, Calcutta, Madras
c. ?Madras, Bombay, Kanpur
d. Bhatinda, Calcutta, Sholapur

Answer: ?Calcutta, Bombay, Madras .

3. Which of the following is the oldest Joint Stock bank of India?
a. Patiala Bank
b. Bank of India
c. Allahabad Bank
d. Bank of Baroda

Answer: Allahabad Bank
Explanation: Joint- Stock Bank is a bank having ?multiple shareholders. Bank of Upper India was the oldest Joint Stock Bank of India which was established in 1863. However, bank failed in 1913. At present, the old records explain that Allahabad Bank is the oldest Joint Stock bank of India which is still existing and working. It is also known as India?s oldest public sector bank that was established in the year 1865. .

4. Which among the following was the first bank to open a branch on foreign soil
a. State Bank of India
b. Bank of India
c. Allahabad Bank
d. Bank of Punjab

Answer: Bank of India
Explanation: The first Indian bank to open a branch outside India was Bank of India in London in 1946. It was also the first bank to open a branch in continental Europe at Paris in 1974 .

5. What was the initial share capital of Reserve Bank of India?
a. Rs. 20 Crore
b. Rs. 10 Crore
c. Rs. 5 Crore
d. Rs. 20 Crore

Answer: Rs. 5 Crore



Explanation:?When?RBI was established, it was not a Government owned bank but was a privately held bank. It started with Rs. 5 Crore of Share Capital, amazingly divided into Rs. 100 of shares each fully paid up. The entire capital was initially owned & controlled by private shareholders. Rs. 4,97,8000 out of Rs.5 Crore was subscribed by the private shareholders while the remaining Rs. 2,20,000 out of Rs. 5 Crore was subscribed by central government.

6. The Royal Commission on Indian Currency and Finance was also known as __
a. Hartog Commission
b. Buttler Committee
c. Hilton-Young Commission
d. Muddiman Commission

Answer: Hilton-Young Commission

7. Original headquarters of RBI were located at ___?
a. New Delhi
b. Calcutta
c. Madras
d. Bombay

Answer: Calcutta
Explanation: Kolkata had got got the first Original Headquarter. However, it was shifted to Shahid Bhagat Singh Marg of ?Bombay city in 1937 .

8. In which year, Paper Currency Act was enacted by British Government of India?
a. 1851
b. 1852
c. 1861
d. 1870

Answer: 1861

9. On which date, RBI started working?
a. January 1, 1934
b. April 1, 1934
c. January 1, 1935
d. April 1, 1935

Answer : April 1, 1935

10. In which year, Indian Rupee was devalued for the first time?
a. 1966
b. 1967
c. 1968
d. 1969

Answer: 1966

11. In which year, Regional Rural Banks started working in India?
a. 1989
b. 1972
c. 1975
d. 1978

Answer: 1975

12. The earliest evidence of Banking transactions in India comes from __
a. Maurya Era
b. Vedic Era
c. Medieval India
d. Gupta Era

Answer: ?Vedic Era
Explanation:?Vedic Civilization has many archaelogical facts revealing the origin of Banking in India where?rnapatra (??????) or rnalekhya (???????) were the major loan deeds that were prevalent during Vedic period.
? Interest rates and?usury (???????) both were prevalent during this period.
? ?Manusmriti has the account of Vedic word Kusidin which refers refers to an usurer (??????)

13. The liberalisation of Indian banking and regulation was done first on the basis of recommendations of which committee?
a. Saraiya Committee
b. Khusro Committee
c. Narasimham Committee
d. A Ashok?Committee

Answer: Narasimham Committee
Explanation:?On the basis of recommendations of Narasimham Committee, the liberalization of Indian Bank was done in 1991 with the motives of ?enhancing productivity, profitability and efficiency of banks as were suggested by the Narasimham committe.

14. In which year, the nationalization of subsidiary banks of the State Bank of India (SBI) was done?
a. 1958
b. 1959
c. 1964
d. 1991

Answer: 1959
Explanation:?The State Bank of India (subsidiary) act of 1959 led to the nationalization of the following?seven subsidiary banks of the State Bank of India (SBI):
i. State Bank of Bikaner and Jaipur (SBBJ),
ii. State Bank of Hyderabad (SBH),
iii. State Bank of Mysore (SBM),
iv. State Bank of Patiala (SBP),
v. State Bank of Indore,
vi. State Bank of Saurashtra, ?and
vii. State Bank of Travancore (SBT). .

15. What was the name of State Bank of India (SBI) before it was created by SBI Act?
a. Imperial Bank of Bengal
b. Imperial Bank of Hindustan
c. Imperial Bank of India
d. Imperial Bank of Madras

Answer: Imperial Bank of India

images (2)
Explanation: The Presidency banks that included Bank of Bengal, Bank of Bombay and Bank of Madras that were amalgamated on 27 January, 1921.
– Note that under the Imperial Bank of India Act, 1920, the Imperial Bank of India was established.
– The Imperial Bank of India was nationalized after the Independence under the act of State Bank of India in 1955 and thus State Bank of India (SBI) was formed.


Competition Gurukul is a premier institute for Banking Exam Coaching. You can visit our center to register your slot for fresh batches. You will be guided by our counsellor from Monday to Saturday at scheduled timing of 9 AM to 8 PM.

For More Information Contact

Competition Gurukul
A-1/17, Janakpuri, Main Najafgarh Road,
Opp Metro Pillar 636, New Delhi ? 110058


Target IBPS Exam 2015: Banking Awareness Practice Set

Competition Gurukul is presenting the practice set on Banking Awareness in this blog in order to?give the final touch to Banking Exam 2015 Aspirants. This practice set is valid for IBPS, IBPS PO and RRB.

1. Which of the following statements is incorrect regarding RTGS system?
i) The transactions take place in real time
ii) The system operates on DNS (Deferred Net Settlement) basis
iii) The minimum amount that can be remitted is Rs. 2 lakh
iv) Service charges for RTGS transactions vary from one bank to another
v) Only ii and iii


2. 10-second paperless instant loan Scheme for its existing customers and Project Tatkal home loans application process within 10 days are launch by which of these banks respectively:
ii) SBI and ICICI
iii) BOI and SBI
iv) HDFC and SBI
v) BOI and ICICI
3. RBI is lender of last resort which reveals:
i) RBI advances money to public whenever there is any emergency
ii) Commercial banks give fund to the RBI
iii) RBI advances necessary credit against eligible securities to financial institutions
iv) All of the above
v) None of the above
4. A scheduled bank must be:
i) Company incorporated by any law in force in any place in India.
ii) An institution notified by GOI.
iii) A company as defined by Companies Act, 2013.
iv) All of the Above
v) None of These
5. The ability of commercial banks to increase their deposits by expanding their loans and advances is known as
i) Capital expansion
ii) Credit expansion
iii) Credit control
iv) Credit creation
v) None of these
6. In TRIPS, what does ?I? stand for?
i) Intellectual
ii) Information
iii) Indian
iv) Infra
v) None of these
7. Which of the following statement is/are true about fiat money?
i) Fiat money includes physical token like certificates
ii) Fiat money’s value is not derived from any intrinsic value are relative value is based only on government order
iii) Fiat money can be converted in to valuable commodity (like gold)
iv) Both 1 and 2
v) None of these
8. RBI has lifted a ban on carrying Indian bank notes of Rs 1,000 and 500 denominations to and from Nepal and Bhutan. RBI has put a limit on carrying such notes at Rs.__________ per person?
i) 10000
ii) 15000
iii) 25000
iv) 20000
v) 30000
9. Often, we read in the newspapers that several Indian companies are taking the FCCB route to raise capital. What does the term FCCB stand for?
i) Foreign Currency Convertible Bond
ii) Foreign Convertible Credit Bond
iii) Financial Consortium and Credit Bureau
iv) Future Credit and Currency Bureau
v) None of these
10. Which of the following entities did not get the licence to run Payment Bank :
i) Aditya Birla Nuvo Limited
ii) Sun Pharma
iii) Fino PayTech Limited
iv) Videocon d2h
v) Cholamandalam Distribution Services Limited

Answer Key

1 – ii
2- iv
3 – iii
4 – iv
5 – iv
6 – i
Explanation :TRIPS ?stands for Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights??
7 – ii
8 – iii
9 – i
10 – iv


Competition Gurukul is a premier institute for Banking Exam Coaching. You can visit our center to register your slot for fresh batches. You will be guided by our counsellor from Monday to Saturday at scheduled timing of 9 AM to 8 PM.

For More Information Contact

Competition Gurukul
A-1/17, Janakpuri, Main Najafgarh Road,
Opp Metro Pillar 636, New Delhi ? 110058


What Is Repo Rate? – Check Your Banking Awareness

The questions related to repo rate & reverse repo rate are always asked in exam. So they are considered as the HOT TOPICSS of any Bank exam – whether IBPS, SBI, NABARD etc.


Do you Know what the situation would be if banks run out of money? We know that is a very difficult situation for any organization like bank and so difficult for the Bank job aspirants to answer. So, let we ask you have you ever been told that a Bank has no funds with it to pay money to it’s clients? We are 100% sure you have never come across such a situation.

But it is noteworthy that banking is basically a business – a business
i. banks take money from people; and
ii. then give it to people as loan who seek it.

So we want to analyse what do a Bank do when shortage of money is felt in the banks?
The answer is simple & quite straightforward – Banks take help from it’s central bank like Indian banks take help from Reserve Bank of India (RBI).

An Indian pedestrian walks out of The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) building in Mumbai on April 29, 2008. India's central bank held key interest rates steady but hiked the percentage of cash banks must hold in reserve to 8.25 percent to curb inflation riding at over three-year highs.It was the second time the Reserve Bank of India had announced an increase in the cash reserve ratio (CRR) in two weeks as it seeks to suck out excess liquidity in the banking system and fight inflation now at 7.33 percent.    AFP PHOTO Sajjad HUSSAIN

Repo Rate

The Central Bank of any country uses the mechanism of “Repo rate” to revive the banks from the situation of financial deficit or bankruptcy. Repo rate is defined as the rate of interest at which the central bank of a country lends money to the banks (of commercial nature) for short term purposes in case of shortage of funds. It is significant to understand that Repo rate defines the rate of interest for one day maturity period which is famously termed as the key short term lending rate.

The Central Bank is a supreme financial institution in a country that is solely responsible for money supply in an economy and thus responsible for regulating interest rates. Central Bank as a governing body for all commercial banks in country, is meant for supervising the commercial banks’ functioning.

The commercial banks are the banks that deal with the money of the general public. They accept deposits from the general public and extend loans. They provide various banking services such as fixed deposits, cheques etc to businesses, institutions and some individuals. They are accountable to the central banks for their functioning.

Let us consider a bank named XYZ of our country where you supposedly have kept Rs. 1 Crore. Now you urgently require money. Suppose the bank has given a large number of loans as a result of which the Bank doesn?t have enough funds to pay you at present. In such a scenario, the XYZ which is a commercial bank will ask Reserve Bank of Bank (the Central Bank of India) so that it can fulfill our request.

Definition : The Central bank (say RBI in our case) will provide financial aid to the commercial bank (say XYZ in our case) fixed at certain rate of interest which is termed as ?Repo Rate?.


Reverse Repo Rate

Now the question is What happens if the commercial banks (say XYZ in our case) deposit/keep their money with the central bank?


Obviously, the banks will receive/get interest on the money which they have kept with the central bank.

Definition : The interest rate received by commercial banks for the amount of money thay have kept with the central bank is termed as the reverse Repo Rate.

Note :Reverse Repo Rate is always lower than the Repo Rate.


Mechanism for controlling inflation through Repo rate?

Inflation is a situation when there is a sudden rise in prices of commodities in a country. As a result, the RBI has to increase the repo rate so as to reduce the money supply in the commodity.

Inflation and Interest

“The banks has to induce in not to borrow money from the RBI in case of increased repo rate and due to which the supply of money in the economy will definitely reduce. And it is certain that as a result of reduced money supply, people will spend less money due to which there will be decrease in the demand of commodity. The prices of the commodities will definitely fall due to decreased demand for commodities, which at last will control inflation.”

Conclusion : By lowering repo rate and increasing the reverse repo rate, inflation can easily be controlled. Furthermore, they also controls the interest rate of commercial banks in loans, mortgages, savings and so on.

Current Rate of Interests

Repo Rate

Reverse Repo Rate



Competition Gurukul is a premier institute for Banking Coaching. You can visit our center to register your slot. You will be guided by our counsellor from Monday to Saturday at scheduled timing of 9 AM to 8 PM.

For More Information Contact

Competition Gurukul
A-1/17, Janakpuri, Main Najafgarh Road,
Opp Metro Pillar 636, New Delhi ? 110058

Important Educational Institutional Bodies in India

Important Educational Institutional Bodies in India
???? ??? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ?????

Higher Education in India is one of the largest and oldest systems of higher education in the world

Universities in India

The University system has a number of different types of institutions and there are wide variations in their missions, goals and objectives.

A. Central University

While other universities in the country are established by the State Governments, a central University in India is formed by the Government of India, by an Act Of Parliament


University of Allahabad?is the?Oldest
among all central Universities in India

i. The Government of India is responsible for arranging, allocating and distributing financial resources required by the University Grants Commission (UGC) for the establishment of Central Universities in India
ii. Currently, there are 46 universities in India by April 2015
iii. Delhi & Uttar Pradesh has highest number of central universities with 5 each.

B. State?University
The State Governments establish and plan for the colleges and universities in the states.
i. Currently, there are 332 state universities in India by April 2015
ii. Uttar Pradesh has highest number of state universities with 25, followed by Gujarat with 24, Karnataka with 23, Tamil Nadu with 22, West Bengal & Rajasthan with 21 each, and Andhra Pradesh & Maharashtra with 20 state universities each.

C. Deemed?University

UGC is entrusted with another responsibility of giving ?Deemed? status to any educational institution by which:
i. UGC can grant fund to them;
ii. UGC can make such institution enable to design their own syllabus and course work;
iii. Such institutions also get the authority to set its own guidelines regarding admission and fees.
iv. ?Currently, there are 128?deemed universities in India by April 2015 with Tamil Nadu has maximum number of deemed university in country with 28, followed by Maharashtra with 21 and Karnataka with 14

D. Private University

In the past few years, the private universities have mushroomed with total 216 Private Universities in country. Rajasthan has the maximum private universities with 40, followed by Uttar Pradesh with 23 and Gujarat with 20

Formal & Distance Education?in India



? Indra Gandhi National Open University was established in 1985
? Purpose :- To democratize higher education & to provide cost-effective, quality education to large sections of Indian population
? Is a world leader in distance education
? Serves the educational aspirations of over 2.6 million students in India and 36 other countries through the 21 School of Studies and a network of 61 regional centers, around 3000 learner support centers and around 60 overseas centers.
? Functions
i. Offers various academic programmes that lead to Certificates, Diplomas, and Degrees
ii. In it?s capacity as an Apex Body,?it co-ordinates and monitors distance education system throughout the country

Professional/Technical?& General Education?in India

1. UGC


? The University Grants Commission has the unique distinction of being the only grant-giving agency in the country
? Responsibilities of UGC
i. Providing funds;
ii. Co-ordination, determination and maintenance of standards in institutions of higher education



? The National Council of Educational Research and Training was established in September 1961 in New Delhi as an autonomous body.
? Objectives
i. Qualitative improvement in the education
ii. Provide qualitative text books
iii. Improvement in the quality of teachers education


Competition Gurukul?is a premier institute for CTET Coaching.?You can visit our center?to register your slot. You will be guided by our?counsellor from Monday to Saturday?at scheduled timing of?9 AM to 8 PM.

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English Tips & tricks on Articles for Banking , SSC, and General Competition Exams


The adjectives a, an and the are called Articles.

Types of Articles

Articles are basically categorized into two broad categories

A.?Indefinite article?A/An
B.?Definite article?The


Use of Indefinite Article?A/An

a. An is usually used before a word beginning with a?vowel sound
For example
(i) Radha is an intelligent girl.
(ii) He is an MP. ? ? (sound of ?em?p where e is a vowel)
(iii) You are an honest man. ? ?(sound of ?own?est where o is a vowel)

b. ?A is used before a word beginning with a?consonant sound
For example
(i) He is a university student. ?(sound of ?you?niversal where y is a consonant)
(ii) He is a European. ? ?(sound of ?you?ropean where y is a consonant)
(iii) He is a one-eyed man.


c. A/An is used before a singular countable noun only when it?is mentioned for the first time representing no
particular person or thing.
For example
(i) He has an oxen.
(ii) She is a landlord.
(iii) A boy came to my home.
d. A/An is used before a singular countable noun which is?used as the representative of a class of things or persons.
For example
(i) A lion is a dangerous animal.
(ii) A pupil should obey his teacher.
(iii) A dog is a faithful animal.

e. A/An is used to make a common noun of a proper noun.
For example
(i) My neighbour is a philanthropist.
(ii) She is a Sania Mirza.
(iii) His brother is a PM.

f. A/An is used in exclamations before singular countable?nouns.
For example
(i) What an interesting video
(ii) What a pretty girl
(iii) What a lovely morning


g. A/An is used in its original sense of one or any.
For example
(i) He wants a car.
(ii) There are not fourteen inches in a foot.
(iii) He bought a pen.

Use of Definite Article?The

a. when we talk about a particular person or thing or one?already mentioned.
For example
(i) Give me the pen which you bought last Saturday.
(ii) The book you want is out of stock.
(iii) I met a boy. The boy was handsome.

b. when a singular noun represents a whole class.
For example
(i) The rose is a beautiful flower.
(ii) The dog loves comfort.
(iii) The Neem is a useful tree.

c. Before the first noun in ?noun + preposition + noun??construction.
For example
(i) The Rama?of Ramayana is an ideal king.
(ii) The diamond of South Africa is famous.
(iii) He likes the food of Jaipur.

d. Before names of mountain-ranges.
For example
The Himalayas, The Alps, The Aravallis

e. Before names of groups of islands.
For example
The West Indies,?The Andamans

f. Before names of rivers, oceans, gulfs, deserts and forests.
For example
The Ganges, ?The Nile,?The Amazon, ?The Indian Ocean,?The Gulf of Mexico, The Thar deseert, The
Black Forest

g. Before names of religious and mythological books.
For example
The Ramayana, The Quran, The Bible

h. Before names of newspapers and magazines.
For example
The Times of India, The?Outlook

i. Before names of heavenly bodies, directions and things?unique of their kind
For example
The sun, The earth,?The moon, The?equator

Note that ?The? is not used before the words ?Parliament, Heaven, God, Hell ?.

j. before names of historical buildings, places and events.
For example
The Red Fort, The Taj Mahal, ?The Siachen, The Dandi March

k. Before musical instruments.
For example
(i) He can play the flute.
(ii) She is fond of playing the guitar.

Note that?When musical instruments are used as countable?nouns, A/An is used.
For example
(i) We bought a sitar for her.
(ii) I gifted him a violin.

l. Before religious communities and political parties.
For example
The Hindus, The Sikhs, The Bhartiya Janta Party

m. Before names of ships, aeroplanes and trains.
For example
The INS Vikrant, The?Qatar Airlines,?The Rajdhani?Express

n. Before the words denoting physical positions or
For example
The centre, The top,?The front, The back
Further,??before parts of body
For example
(ii) He pulled the dog by the tail.
(ii)?Sohan?was hit on the head.

o. Before names of government departments and armed?forces.
For example
The Legislative, The Judiciary, The Executive, The Air Force, The Army

p. Before the dates of months.
For example
The 21st of December, The 5th June

Note that before the ordinals, we also use the articles
For example
The first, The third, The ninth

q. before the superlative degree.
For example
(i) He is?the best guy for this job.
(ii) She is the sweetest?girl in the class.

r. Before the names of a few countries that form federations and provinces.
For example
The USA, ?The Netherlands, The USSR, The Republic of China, ?The?Punjab
t. Before comparative degree in case of making a choice between the two.
For example
(i) He?is the tougher of the two guys.
(ii) She?is the prettier of the two.


Sometimes there is no need for using any kind of article. Such articles are known as zero articles.?This term used here is not universal but it is aptly used to denote the reference of omission of articles.

The articles a, an, the are omitted
a. Before names of days and months.
For example
(i) She will go on Monday.
(ii) They are getting married in January.

b. Before names of languages.
For example
(i) He cannot speak French.
(ii) She is learning Marathi.

c. Before names of subjects.
For example
(i) She has no interest in mathematics.
(ii) Biology is his favourite subject.

d. Before names of diseases.
For example
(i) AIDS is spreading like wild fire.
(ii) He died of cancer.

Note that??The? is used before the names of a few diseases.
For example
the plague, the measles,the mumps,

e. Before names of festivals and seasons.
For example
(i) He will go to USA?in winter.
(ii) She celebrated Diwali?with her friends.
But note that
(i) He will go to Canada in the winter season.
(ii) She went to Delhi in the Diwali holidays.

f. Before names of sports.
For example
(i) She plays tennis.
(ii) We like cricket.

g. Before names of meals.
For example
(i) They take lunch at 2 pm.
(ii) Breakfast is ready.

h. Before school, college, church, prison, hospital, bed,?market, when these places are visited or used for their
primary purpose.
For example
(i) She goes to temple?on Sunday.
(ii) The criminal was sent to prison.

i. before man, life, death, art, science, when these words?are used in the widest sense.
For example
(i) Science has developed much in the past fifty years.
(ii) Man is mortal.


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IBPS Sept 2015 Data Interpretation & Analysis Tips & Tricks

Data Analysis & Interpretation is always considered most challenging part of IBPS PO, SI PO & other banking exam.??The weightage and number of questions on an average asked in any bank exam are described in tabular form below:

S. No.

Topic Weightage


Pie Charts 10-15
2. Bar Graphs



Line Graphs 5-10
4. Data Tables


5. Mixed graphs



Caselets 5


Date Analysis


8. Permutation


Total Questions = 50

Total Marks = 50

Key Strategies to Solve Data Interpretation Question

Visual Estimation

It is a well known fact that it is near to impossible to solve 200 questions in 120 minutes accurately. ?But the questions related to data interpretation & analysis provide you an opportunity to score high by simply visualizing the data in any of the above specified format & answer the questions.

Finding averages

Many times in Data Interpretation, questions are asked to find average of 5-6 big numbers. As all these numbers are from a same graph, there is high probability that these number will be close to each other.

Solve the fractions quickly

Learn the value of fractions in percentages.

Faster calculations

Only thing that you require to score well in data interpretation questions is fast calculation.

Good Coaching For Better Result

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For More Information Contact

You can visit our center?to register your slot for fresh demo plus new batch. You will be guided by our?counsellor from Monday to Saturday?at scheduled timing of?9 AM to 8 PM.

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Quantitative Aptitude 2015 Material For IBPS PO / SBI PO

Competition Gurukul?has provided the latest updated study material for IBPS Exam 2015 in concise & precise manner to make last days quick revision. The topics which are covered in this blog are as follows:

1. Number System
2. H.C.F. And L.C.M.
3. Decimal Fractions
4. Simplification
5. Square Roots And Cube Roots
6. Average
7. Surds And Indices
8. Percentage
9. Profit And Loss
10. Ratio And Proportion
11. Partnership
12. Time And Work
13. Time And
14. Problems On
15. Simple Interest
16. Compound
17. Area
18. Volume And Surface Area
19. Permutations And Combinations
20. Probability



1. Natural Numbers :Counting numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,….. are called natural numbers.

2. Whole Numbers :All counting numbers together with zero form the set of whole numbers. Thus,
(i) 0 is the only whole number which is not a natural number.

(ii) Every natural number is a whole number.

3. Integers : All natural numbers, 0 and negatives of counting numbers i.e.,
{?, – 3 , – 2 , – 1 , 0, 1, 2, 3,?..} together form the set of integers.

(i) Positive Integers : {1, 2, 3, 4, ?..} is the set of all positive integers.

(ii) Negative Integers : {- 1, – 2, – 3,?..} is the set of all negative integers.

(iii) Non-Positive and Non-Negative Integers : 0 is neither positive nor negative. So, {0, 1, 2, 3,?.} represents the set of non-negative integers, while {0, – 1 , – 2 , – 3 , ?..} represents the set of non-positive integers.

4. Even Numbers :A number divisible by 2 is called an even number, e.g., 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, etc.

5. Odd Numbers :A number not divisible by 2 is called an odd number. e.g., 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, etc.

6. Prime Numbers :A number greater than 1 is called a prime number, if it has exactly two?factors, namely 1 and 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23,29, 31, 37, 41, 43,

Prime numbers : To find out whether it is?prime or not, we use
Find a whole number >square root of p. Test whether p is divisible by any prime number less than k. If yes, then p is not prime. Otherwise, p is prime.?e.g,,We have to find whether 191 is a prime number or not. Now, 14 >square root of 191.Prime numbers less than 14 are 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13.191 is not divisible by any of them. So, 191 is a prime number.

7. Composite Numbers :Numbers greater than 1 which are not prime, are known as composite numbers, e.g., 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12.

Note :

(i) 1 is neither prime nor composite.

(ii) 2 is the only even number which is prime.

(iii) There are 25 prime numbers between 1 and 100.

Co-primes :Two numbers a and b are said to be co-primes, if their H.C.F. is 1. e.g., (2, 3), (4, 5), (7, 9), (8, 11), etc. are co-primes,


1. Multiplication By Distributive Law :
(i) a* (b + c) = a * b + a * c (ii) a * (b-c) = a * b-a * c.

Ex.(i) 567958 x 99999 = 567958 x (100000 – 1) = 567958 x 100000 – 567958 x 1
= (56795800000 – 567958) = 56795232042.

(ii) 978 x 184 + 978 x 816 = 978 x (184 + 816) = 978 x 1000 = 978000.

2. Multiplication of a Number By 5n : Put n zeros to the right of the multiplicand and divide the number so formed by 2n

Ex. 975436 x 625 = 975436 x 54= 9754360000 =609647600


(i) (a + b)2 = a2 + b2 + 2ab
(ii) (a – b)2 = a2 + b2 – 2ab
(iii) (a + b)2 – (a – b)2 = 4ab
(iv) (a + b)2 + (a – b)2 = 2 (a2 + b2)
(v) (a2 – b2) = (a + b) (a – b)
(vi) (a + b + c)2 = a2 + b2 + c2 + 2 (ab + bc + ca)
(vii) (a3 + b3) = (a +b) (a2 – ab + b2)
(viii) (a3 – b3) = (a – b) (a2 + ab + b2)
(ix) (a3 + b3 + c3 -3abc) = (a + b + c) (a2 + b2 + c2 – ab – bc – ca)
(x) If a + b + c = 0, then a3 + b3 + c3 = 3abc.


If we divide a given number by another number, then : Dividend = (Divisor x Quotient) + Remainder
(i) (xn- an ) is divisible by (x – a) for all values of n.
(ii) (xn- an) is divisible by (x + a) for all even values of n.
(iii) (xn + an) is divisible

E. PROGRESSION – order according to?certain definite rule,

1. Arithmetic Progression its preceding term by a
constant, then such a progression is called an arithmetical progression. This constant?difference is called the common difference of the A.P.

An A.P. with first term a and common difference d is given by a, (a + d), (a + 2d),(a + 3d),… The nth
term of this A.P. is given by Tn =a (n – 1) d.
The sum of n terms of this A.P.
Sn = n/2 [2a + (n – 1) d] = n/2 (first term + last term).


(i) (1 + 2 + 3 +?. + n) =n(n+1)/2

(ii) (l2 + 22 + 32 + … + n2) = n (n+1)(2n+1)/6

(iii) (13 + 23 + 33 + … + n3) =n2(n+1)2

2. Geometrical Progression (G.P.) :A progression of numbers in which every term bears a constant ratio with its preceding term, is called a geometrical progression.

The constant ratio is called the common ratio of the G.P. A G.P. with first term a and common ratio r is : a, ar, ar2,
In this G.P. Tn = arn-1

Sum of the n terms, Sn= a(1-rn) / (1-r)

2. H.C.F. AND L.C.M

A. Factors and Multiples :If a number a divides another number b exactly, we say that a is a factor of b. In this case, b is called a multiple of a.

B. Highest Common Factor (H.C.F.) or Greatest Common Measure (G.C.M.) or Greatest Common Divisor (G.C.D.): The H.C.F. of two or more than two numbers is the greatest number that divides each of them exactly.

There are two methods of finding the H.C.F. of a given set of numbers :

1. Factorization Method :Express each one of the given numbers as the product of prime factors.The product of least powers of common prime factors gives H.C.F.

2. Division Method: Suppose we have to find the H.C.F. of two given numbers. Divide the larger number by the smaller one. Now, divide the divisor by the remainder. Repeat the process of dividing the preceding number by the remainder last obtained till zero is obtained as remainder. The last divisor is the required H.C.F.

Finding the H.C.F. of more than two numbers :Suppose we have to find the H.C.F. of three numbers. Then, H.C.F. of [(H.C.F. of any two) and (the third number)] gives the H.C.F. of three given numbers. Similarly, the H.C.F. of more than three numbers may be obtained.

C. Least Common Multiple (L.C.M.) :The least number which is exactly divisible by each one of the given numbers is called their L.C.M.

1. Factorization Method numbers into a product
of prime factors. factors.
2. Common Division Arrange the given numbers?in a row in any order two of the given numbers?and carry forward process till no two of the?numbers are divisible the divisors and the?undivided numbers is the required L.C.M. of the given numbers,

D. Product of two numbers =Product of their H.C.F. and L.C.M.

E. Co-primes: Two numbers are said to be co-primes if their H.C.F. is 1.

F. H.C.F. and L.C.M. of Fractions:

1. H C F= H.C.F. of Numerators / L.C.M. of Denominators
2. L C M = L.C.M of Numerators / H.C.F. of Denominators

G. H.C.F. and L.C.M. of Decimal Fractions: In given numbers, make the same number of decimal places by annexing zeros in some numbers, if necessary. Considering these numbers without decimal point, find H.C.F. or L.C.M. as the case may be. Now, in the result, mark off as many decimal places as are there in each of the given numbers.

Comparison of Fractions: Find the L.C.M. of the denominators of the given fractions. Convert each of the fractions into an equivalent fraction with L.C.M. as the denominator, by multiplying both the numerator and denominator by the same number. The resultant fraction with the greatest numerator is the greatest.


A. Decimal Fractions :Fractions in which denominators are powers of 10 are known as decimal fractions.

Thus ,1/10=1 tenth=0.1; 1/100=1 hundredth =0.01;
99/100=99 hundredths=0.99; 7/1000=7 thousandths=0.007,etc

B. Conversion of a Decimal Into Vulgar Fraction :Put 1 in the denominator under the decimal point and annex with it as many zeros as is the number of digits after the decimal point. Now, remove the decimal point and reduce the fraction to its lowest terms.
Thus, 0.25=25/100=1/4;2.008=2008/1000=251/125.

C. Annexing zeros to the extreme right of a decimal fraction does not change its value Thus, 0.8 = 0.80 = 0.800, etc.

D. If numerator and denominator of a fraction contain the same number of decimal places, then we remove the decimal sign.

Thus, 1.84/2.99 = 184/299 = 8/13; 0.365/0.584 = 365/584=5

E. Operations on Decimal Fractions :
1. Addition and Subtraction of Decimal Fractions :The given numbers are so placed under
each other that the arranged can now be
added or subtracted
2. Multiplication of decimal point to the?right by as many

Thus, 5.9632 x 100 = 596,32; 0.073 x 10000 = 0.0730 x 10000 = 730.

3. Multiplication of Decimal Fractions :Multiply the given numbers considering them without the decimal point. Now, in the product, the decimal point is marked off to obtain as many places of decimal as is the sum of the number of decimal places in the given numbers.

Suppose we have to find the product (.2 x .02 x .002). Now, 2x2x2 =

8. Sum of decimal places = (1 + 2 + 3) = .2 x .02 x .002 = .000008.

4. Dividing a Decimal Fraction By a Counting Number :Divide the given number without considering the decimal point, by the given counting number. Now, in the quotient, put the decimal point to give as many places of decimal as there are in the dividend.

Suppose we have to find the quotient (0.0204 + 17). Now, 204 ^ 17 = 12. Dividend contains 4 places of decimal. So, 0.0204 + 17 = 0.0012.

5. Dividing a Decimal Fraction By a Decimal Fraction :Multiply both the dividend and the divisor by a suitable power of 10 to make divisor a whole number. Now, proceed as above.
Thus, 0.00066/0.11 = (0.00066*100)/(0.11*100) = (0.066/11) = 0.006V

Comparison of Fractions :Suppose some fractions are to be arranged in ascending or descending order

F. of magnitude. Then, convert each one of the given fractions in the decimal form, and arrange them accordingly.

Suppose, we have to arrange the fractions 3/5, 6/7 and 7/9 in descending order. now, 3/5=0.6,6/7 = 0.857,7/9 = 0.777…

since 0.857>0.777…>0.6, so 6/7>7/9>3/5

G. Recurring Decimal :If in a decimal fraction, a figure or a set of figures is repeated continuously, then such a number is called a recurring decimal. In a recurring decimal, if a single figure is repeated, then it is expressed by putting a dot on it. If a set of figures is
repeated, it is expressed by putting a bar on the set
Thus 1/3 = 0.3333?.= 0.3; 22 /7 = 3.142857142857…..= 3.142857

Pure Recurring Decimal: A decimal fraction in which all the figures after the decimal point are repeated, is called a pure recurring decimal.

Converting a Pure Recurring Decimal Into Vulgar Fraction :Write the repeated figures only once in the numerator and take as many nines in the denominator as is the number of repeating figures.
thus ,0.5 = 5/9; 0.53 = 53/59 ;0.067 = 67/999;etc…

Mixed Recurring Decimal: A decimal fraction in which some figures do not repeat and
some of them are
17333 . = 0.173.
Converting a Mixed the numerator, take the
difference between point (taking repeated
digits only once) In the denominator,

take the number formed by as many nines as there are repeating digits followed by as many zeros as is the number of non-repeating digits.

Thus 0.16 = (16-1) / 90 = 15/19 = 1/6; 0.2273 = (2273 – 22)/9900 = 2251/9900

H. Some Basic Formulae :

(i) (a + b)(a- b) = (a2 – b2).
(ii) (a + b)2 = (a2 + b2 + 2ab).
(iii) (a – b)2 = (a2 + b2 – 2ab).
(iv) (a + b+c)2 = a2 + b2 + c2+2(ab+bc+ca)
(v) (a3 + b3) = (a + b) (a2 – ab + b2)
(vi) (a3 – b3) = (a – b) (a2 + ab + b2).
(vii) (a3 + b3 + c3 – 3abc) = (a + b + c) (a2 + b2 + c2-ab-bc-ca)
(viii) When a + b + c = 0, then a3 + b3+ c3 = 3abc


A. ?BODMAS? Rule: This rule depicts the correct sequence in which the operations are to be executed, so as to find out the value of a given expression. Here, ?B? stands for ?bracket?

,?O?for ?of? , ?D? for? division? and ?M? for ?multiplication?, ?A? for ?addition? and ?S? for ?subtraction?.

Thus, in simplifying an expression, first of all the brackets must be removed, strictly in the order(), {} and [].

After removing the brackets, we must use the following operations strictly in the order:

(1)of (2)division (3) multiplication (4)addition (5)subtraction.

B. Modulus of a real number : Modulus of a real number a is defined as |a| = a, if a>0 -a, if a

Thus, |5|=5 and |-5|=-(-5)=5.

C. Virnaculum (or bar): When an expression contains Virnaculum, before applying the
?BODMAS? rule, we simplify the expression under the Virnaculum.


A. Square Root: If x2 = y, we say that the square root of y is x and we write, ?y = x. Thus, ?4
= 2,

?9 = 3, ?196 = 14.

B. Cube Root: The cube root of a given number x is the number whose cube is x. We denote the cube root of x by 3?x.

Thus, 3?8 = 3?2 x 2 x 2 = 2, 3?343 = 3?7 x 7 x 7 = 7 etc.

(i) ?xy = ?x * ?y
(ii) ?(x/y) = ?x / ?y = (?x / ?y) * (?y / ?y) = ?xy / y


An average, or an arithmetic mean, is the sum of `n’ different data divided by `n’

Average = Sum of Data / No. of Data
No. of Data = Sum of Data / Average
Sum of Data = Average * No. of Data

Points to remember:

1. Age of new entrant = New average + No. of old members x change in average
2. Age of one who left = New average – No. of old members x change in average
3. Age of new person = Age of the removed person + No. of members x change in average

In all the above three cases, if there is a decrease in the average, the sign of change in average will be negative.

If a certain distance is covered at x km/hr and the same distance is covered by y km/hr, then the average speed during the whole journey is 2xy/(x+y) km/hr.


(i) am x an = am + n
(ii) am / an = am-n
(iii) (am)n = amn
(iv) (ab)n = anbn
(v) ( a/ b )n = ( an / bn )

(vi) a0 = 1

Let a be a rational number and n be a positive integer such that a1/n = nsqrt(a) is irrational. Then nsqrt(a) is called a surd of order n.

(i) n?a = a1/n

(ii) n ?ab = n ?a * n ?b (iii) n ?a/b = n ?a / n ?b
(iv) (n ?a)n = a
(v) m?(n?(a)) = mn?(a)
(vi) (n?a)m = n?am


A. Concept of Percentage :A fraction with its denominator as ?100? is called a percentage.

Percentage means per hundred. So it is a fraction of the form 6/100 , 37/100, 151/100 and these fractions can be expressed as 6%, 37% and 151% respectively. By a certain percent ,we mean that many hundredths.

Thus x percent means x hundredths, written as x%.

To express x% as a fraction :We have , x% = x/100. Thus, 20% =20/100 =1/5; 48% =48/100 =12/25, etc.

To express a/b as a percent :We have, a/b =((a/b)*100)%.

Thus, ? =[(1/4)*100] = 25%; 0.6 =6/10 =3/5 =[(3/5)*100]% =60%.

B. If the price of a commodity increases by R%, then the reduction in consumption so as notto increase the expenditure is

[R / (100+R))*100] %.

If the price of the commodity decreases by R%, then the increase in consumption so as to decrease the expenditure


C. Results on Population suppose it increases at
the rate of R% per

1. Population after n years = P [1+(R/100)]n.
2. Population n years ago = P /[1+(R/100)]n.

D. Results on Depreciation :Let the present value of a machine be P. Suppose it depreciates at the rate R% per annum. Then,

1. Value of the machine after n years = P[1-(R/100)]n.
2. Value of the machine n years ago = P/[1-(R/100)]n.

E. If A is R% more than B, then B is less than A by


If A is R% less than B , then B is more than A by



A. Cost price: the price at which article is purchased. abbreviated as CP.
B. Selling price: the price at which article is sold. abbreviated as SP
C. Profit or gain: if SP is greater than CP, the selling price is said to have profit or gain.
D. Loss: if SP is less than CP, the seller is said to incurred a loss.

(i) GAIN=(SP)-(CP).

(ii) LOSS=(CP)-(SP).


(iv) GAIN %={GAIN*100}/CP.

(v) LOSS%={LOSS*100}/CP.

(vi) SP={(100+GAIN%) /100}*CP.

(vii) SP={(100-LOSS%)/100}*CP.

(viii) {100/(100+GAIN%)}

(ix) CP=100/(100-







A. RATIO: The ratio of two quantities a and b in the same units, is the fraction a/b and we write it as a:b. In the ratio a:b, we call a as the first term or antecedent and b, the second term or consequent.

Ex. The ratio 5: 9 represents 5/9 with antecedent = 5, consequent = 9.

Rule: The multiplication or division of each term of a ratio by the same non-zero number does not affect the ratio.

Ex. 4: 5 = 8: 10 = 12: 15 etc. Also, 4: 6 = 2: 3.

B. PROPORTION: The equality of two ratios is called proportion.

If a: b = c: d, we write, a: b:: c : d and we say that a, b, c, d are in proportion . Here a and d are called extremes, while b and c are called mean terms.

Product of means = Product of extremes.

Thus, a: b:: c : d <=> (b x c) = (a x d).

C. (i)Fourth Proportional: If a : b = c: d, then d is called the fourth proportional
to a, b, c.
(ii)Third Proportional: third proportional to
a and b.
(iii) Mean Proportional: root of ab

We say that (a: b) > (c: d) <=> (a/b)>(c /d).

The compounded ratio of the ratios (a: b), (c: d), (e : f) is (ace: bdf)

E. (i) Duplicate ratio of (a : b) is (a2 : b2).
(ii) Sub-duplicate ratio of (a : b) is (?a : ?b).
(iii)Triplicate ratio of (a : b) is (a3 : b3).
(iv) Sub-triplicate ratio of (a : b) is (a ? : b ? ).
(v) If (a/b)=(c/d), then ((a+b)/(a-b))=((c+d)/(c-d)) (Componendo and dividendo)


(i) We say that x is directly proportional to y, if x = ky for some constant k and we write, x ? y.

(ii) We say that x is inversely proportional to y, if xy = k for some constant k and we write, x?(1/y)


A. Partnership: When two or more than two persons run a business jointly, they are called partners and the deal is known as partnership.

B. Ratio of Division of Gains:

i) When investments of all the partners are for the same time, the gain or loss is distributed a among the partners in the ratio of their investments.

Suppose A and B invest Rs. x and Rs. y respectively for a year in a business, then at the end of the year: (A?s share of profit) : (B’s share of profit) = x : y.

ii) When investments are for different time periods, then equivalent capitals are calculated for a unit of time by taking (capital x number of units of time). Now, gain or loss is divided in the ratio of these capitals.

Suppose A invests Rs. x for p months and B invests Rs. y for q months, then (A?s share of profit) : (B’s share of profit) = xp : yq.

Working and Sleeping Partners: A partner who manages the business is known .as a working partner and the one who simply invests the money is a sleeping partner.


A. If A can do a piece of work in n days, then A’s 1 day’s work = (1/n).

B. If A?s 1 day’s work = (1/n),then A can finish the work in n days.

C. A is thrice as good a workman as B, then: Ratio of work done by A and B = 3 : 1.
Ratio of times taken by A and B to finish a work = 1 : 3.

D. If the number of men engaged to do a piece of work is changed in the ratio a:b, the time required for the work will be changed in the ratio b:a

E. If A is X times as good a workman as B, then A will take 1/x of the time that B takes to do a certain work.

F. If M1 persons can do `W1′ works in D1 days for T1 hours and M2 persons can do `W2′ works in D2 days for T2 hours then M1 D1 T1 W2 = M2 D2 T2W1.

G. If A can finish a work in `x’ days and B can finish the same work in `y’ days, then time taken by both to finish the work is xy / x+y days

H. If A and B together do it in y days
then B alone can

I. If A, B and C can of them working
together can finish

J. If two taps A and B take a and b hours respectively to fill a tank, then the two taps together fill 1/a + 1/b part of the tank in an hour and the entire tank is filled in 1/(1/a+1/b) – ab/(a+b)


A. Speed, Time and Distance:

Speed = Distance / Time Time = Distance / Speed Distance = (Speed x Time)

B. km/hr to m/sec conversion:
x km/hr = x * 5/18 m/sec.

C. m/sec to km/hr conversion:
x m/sec = x * 18/5 km/hr.

D. If the ratio of the speeds of A and B is a : b, then the ratio of the times taken by them to cover the same distance is 1/a : 1/b or b : a.

E. Suppose a man covers a certain distance at x km/hr and an equal distance at y km/hr. Then, the average speed during the whole journey is 2xy / (x+y) km/hr.


A. a km/hr= (a* 5/18) m/s.

B. a m / s = (a*18/5) km/hr.

C. Time taken by a train of length 1 meters to pass a pole or a standing man or a signal post is equal to the time taken by the train to cover 1 meters.

D. Time taken by a train of length 1 meters to pass a stationary object of length b meters is the time taken by the train to cover (1 + b) meters.

E. Suppose two trains or two bodies are moving in the same direction at u m / s and v m/s, where u > v, then their relatives speed = (u – v) m / s.

F. Suppose two trains or two bodies are moving in opposite directions at u m / s and v m/s, then their relative speed is = (u + v) m/s.

G. If two trains of length a meters and b meters are moving in opposite directions at u m / s
and v m/s, then time taken by the trains to cross each other = (a + b)/(u+v) sec.

H. If two trains of length a meters and b meters are moving in the same direction at u m / s
and v m / s, then slower train = (a+b)/(u-v)
I. If two trains (or towards each other and
after crossing they then
(A’s speed) : (B?s


A. Principal: The money borrowed or lent out for a certain period is called the principal or the sum.

B. Interest: Extra money paid for using other’s money is called interest.

C. Simple Interest (S.I.) :If the interest on a sum borrowed for a certain period is reckoned uniformly, then it is called simple interest.

Let Principal = P, Rate = R% per annum (p.a.) and Time = T years. Then,

(i) S.I. =(P*R*T )/100 P=(100*S.I)/(R*T) ; R=(100*S.I)/(P*T) and T=(100*S.I)/(P*R)


A. Compound Interest: Sometimes it so happens that the borrower and the lender agree to fix up a certain unit of time, say yearly or half-yearly or quarterly to settle the previous account.

In such cases, the amount after first unit of time becomes the principal for the second unit, the amount after second unit becomes the principal for the third unit and so on.

B. After a specified period, the difference between the amount and the money borrowed is called the Compound Interest (abbreviated as C.I.) for that period.

Let Principal = P, Rate = R% per annum, Time = n years.

C. When interest is compound Annually:
Amount = P(1+R/100)n

D. When interest is compounded Half-yearly:
Amount = P[1+(R/2)/100]2n

E. When interest is compounded Quarterly:
Amount = P[ 1+(R/4)/100]4n

F. When interest is 3(2/5) years.
Amount = P(1+R/100)
G. When Rates are 1st, 2nd and 3rd year
Then, Amount = 1 2 3
Present worth of Rs.x due n years hence is given by : Present Worth = x/(1+(R/100))n

17. AREA


1. Sum of the angles of a triangle is 180 degrees.

2. Sum of any two sides of a triangle is greater than the third side.

3. Pythagoras theorem:

In a right angle triangle,(Hypotenuse)2 = (base)2 + (Height)2

4. The line joining the midpoint of a side of a triangle to the opposite vertex is called theMEDIAN

5. The point where the three medians of a triangle meet is called CENTROID.Centroid divides each of the medians in the ratio 2:1.

6. In an isosceles triangle, the altitude from the vertex bi-sects the base

7. The median of a triangle divides it into two triangles of the same area.

8. Area of a triangle formed by joining the midpoints of the sides of a given triangle is one-fourth of the area of the given triangle.

1. The diagonals of a
2. Each diagonal of a area

3. The diagonals of a

4. The diagonals of a
5. The diagonals of a .

6. A parallelogram and a rectangle on the same base and between the same parallels areequal in area.

7. Of all the parallelograms of a given sides , the parallelogram which is a rectangle has thegreatest area.


1. Area of a rectangle=(length*breadth)

Therefore length = (area/breadth) and breadth=(area/length)

2. Perimeter of a rectangle = 2*(length + breadth)

3. Area of a square = (side)2=1/2(diagonal)2

4. Area of four walls of a room = 2*(length + breadth)*(height)

5. Area of the triangle=1/2(base*height)

6. Area of a triangle = (s*(s-a)(s-b)(s-c))1/2, where a,b,c are the sides of a triangle and s= ?(a+b+c)

7. Area of the equilateral triangle =((3^1/2)/4)*(side)2

8. Radius of in circle of an equilateral triangle of side a=a/2(31/2)

9. Radius of circumcircle of an equilateral triangle of side a=a/(31/2)

10. Radius of in circle of a triangle of area del and semi perimeter S=del/S

11. Area of the parellogram =(base *height)

12. Area of the rhombus=1/2(product of the diagonals)

13. Area of the trapezium=1/2(size of parallel sides)*distance between them

14. Area of a circle =pi*r2,where r is the radius

15. Circumference of a circle = 2?R

16. Length of an arc = 2?R?/(360) where ? is the central angle

17. Area of a sector = (1/2) (arc x R) = pi*R2*?/360.

18. Area of a semi-circle = (pi)*R2.

19. Circumference of a semi-circle = (pi)*R.



1. Let length = l , breadth = b and height = h units. Then,
2. Volume = (l x b x h) cubic units.
3. Surface area= 2(lb + bh + lh) sq.units.
4. Diagonal.=?l2 +b2 +h2 units

1. Let each edge of a cube be of length a. Then,
2. Volume = a3 cubic units.
3. Surface area = 6a2 sq. units.
4. Diagonal = ?3 a units.

1. Let radius of base = r and Height (or length) = h. Then,
2. Volume = (? r2h) cubic units.
3. Curved surface area = (2?rh). units.
4. Total surface area =2?r (h+r) sq. units

1. Let radius of base
2. Slant height, l =? h
3. Volume = (1/3) ?r
4. Curved surface area
5. Total surface area

1. Let the radius of the sphere be r. Then,
2. Volume = (4/3) ?r3 cubic units.
3. Surface area = (4 ?r2) sq. units.

1. Let the radius of a hemisphere be r. Then,
2. Volume = (2/3) ?r3 cubic units.
3. Curved surface area = (2 ?r2) sq. units.
4. Total surface area = (3 ?r2) units. Remember: 1 litre = 1000 cm3.



1. Multiplication Rule: If certain thing may be done in ?m? different ways and when it has been done, a second thing can be done in ?n ? different ways then total number of ways of doing both things simultaneously = m ? n.

Eg. if one can go to school by 5 different buses and then come back by 4 different buses, then total number of ways of going to and coming back from school = 5 ? 4 = 20.

2. Addition Rule :It there are two alternative jobs which can be done in ?m? ways and in ?n?ways respectively then either of two jobs can be done in (m + n) ways.

Eg.if one wants to go school by bus where there are 5 buses or to by auto where there are4 autos, then total number of ways of going school = 5 + 4 = 9.

AND => Multiply
OR => Add

3. Factorial: The factorial n, written as n! , represents the product of all integers from 1 to n both inclusive. To define o! = 1.

Thus, n! = n (n ?

Example : Find 5!,
Solution : 5! = 5 6 ? 5 ? 4 ? 3 ? 2 ? 1
= 720.

B. Permutation: The ways of arranging or selecting smaller or equal number of persons or objects from a group of persons or collection of objects with due regard being paid to the order of arrangement or selection, are called permutations.

Example :A group of persons want themselves to be photographed. They approach the photographer and request him to take as many different photographs as possible with persons standing in different positions amongst themselves. The photographer wants to calculate how many films does he need to exhaust all possibilities? How can he calculate the number?

In the situations such as above, we can use permutations to find out the exact number of films.

Solution :Let us explain, how the idea of permutation will help the photographer. Suppose the group consists of Mr. Suresh, Mr. Ramesh and Mr. Mahesh. Then how many films does the photographer need? He has to arrange three persons amongst three places with due regard to order. Then the various possibilities are (Suresh, Mahesh, Ramesh), (Suresh, Ramesh, Mahesh), (Ramesh, Suresh, Mahesh), (Ramesh, Mahesh, Suresh), (Mahesh, Ramesh, Suresh) and (Mahesh, Suresh, Ramesh ). Thus there are six possibilities. Therefore he needs six films. Each one of these possibilities is called a permutation of three persons taken at a time.

The different arrangements of a given number of things by taking some or all at a time, are called permutations.

Ex. 1.All permutations (or arrangements) made with the letters a, b, c by taking two at a time are: (ab, ba, ac, bc, cb).

Ex. 2.All permutations made with the letters a,b,c, taking all at a time are: (abc, acb, bca, cab, cba).

Number of Permutations: Number of all permutations of n things, taken r at a time, given by:

nPr = n(n-1)(n-2)…..(n-r+1) = n!/(n-r)!
Examples: (i) 6p2 = (6×5) = 30. (ii) 7p3 = (7x6x5) = 210.
Cor. Number of all permutations of n things, taken all at a time = n!
An Important Result: If there are n objects of which p1 are alike of one kind; p2 are alike
of another kind; p3 are alike of third kind and so on and pr are alike of rth kind,
such that (p1+p2+… .pr) = n.
Then, number of
n! / (p1!).p2!)……

C. Combinations: Each of the different groups or selections which can be formed by taking some or all of a number of objects, is called a combination.

We have studied about permutations in the earlier section. There we have said that while arranging, we should pay due regard to order. There are situations in which order is not important. For example, consider selection of 5 clerks from 20 applicants. We will not be concerned about the order in which they are selected. In this situation, how to find the number of ways of selection? The idea of combination applies here.

Definition :The number of ways in which smaller or equal number of things are arranged or selected from a collection of things where the order of selection or arrangement is not important, are called combinations.

Ex. 1. Suppose we want to select two out of three boys A, B, C. Then, possible selections are AB, BC and CA.

Note that AB and BA represent the same selection.

Ex. 2. All the combinations formed by a, b, c, taking two at a time are ab, bc, ca.

Ex. 3. The only combination that can be formed of three letters a, b, c taken all at a time is abc.

Ex. 4. Various groups of 2 out of four presons A, B, C, D are: AB, AC, AD, BC, BD, CD.

Ex. 5. Note that ab and ba are two different permutations but they represent the same combination.

Number of Combinations: The number of all combination of n things, taken r at a time is:

nCr= n! / (r!)(n-r)! = n(n-1)(n-2)… r factors / r!

Note that: nCr = 1 and nC0 = 1.

An Important Result: nCr = nC(n-r).

(i) 11C4 = (11x10x9x8)/(4x3x2x1) = 330.

(ii) 16C13 = 16C(16-13) = 16x15x14/3! = 16x15x14/3x2x1 = 560.


A. Experiment :An operation which can produce some well-defined outcome is called an experiment

B. Random experiment: An experiment in which all possible outcome are known and the exact out put cannot be predicted in advance is called an random experiment

Examples of performing random experiment:
(i) rolling an unbiased dice
(ii) tossing a fair coin
(iii) drawing a card from a pack of well shuffled card

(iv) picking up a ball of certain color from a bag containing ball of different colors

(i) When we throw a coin. Then either a head(h) or a tail (t) appears.

(ii) A dice is a solid cube, having 6 faces ,marked 1,2,3,4,5,6 respectively when we throw a die , the outcome is the number that appear on its top face .

(iii) A pack of cards has 52 cards it has 13 cards of each suit ,namely Spades, Clubs , Hearts

and Diamonds. Cards of spades and clubs are black cards. Cards of hearts and diamonds are red These are Aces, King , Queen and Jack.

C. Sample space the set S of all
possible outcome

Example of sample space:
(i) in tossing a coin ,s={h,t}
(ii) if two coin are tossed ,then s={hh,tt,ht,th}.
(iii) in rolling a die we have, s={1,2,3,4,5,6}.

D. Event: Any subset of a sample space.

E. Probability of occurrence of an event.

let S be the sample space and E be the event . then, E?S. P(E)=n(E)/n(S).

F. Results on Probability:
(i) P(S) = 1
(ii) 0<P(E)<1
(iii) P(?)=0
(iv) For any event a and b, we have: P(a?b)=P(a)+P(b)-P(a?b)
(v) If A denotes (not-a),then P(A)=1-P(A).

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