SSC Combined Graduate Level Exam-2017 (Tier-1) Coaching

competition grurukul

Competition Gurukul is a pioneer coaching institute for SSC CGL Exam Coaching. We provide quality, comprehensive and result-oriented coaching for all tiers of SSC CGL Exam. Our faculty is highly qualified, knowledgeable and have years of coaching experience. Our study materials are well designed and fully updated as per revised exam pattern and syllabus of SSC CGL. We avail coaching class batches both on weekdays as well as weekends as per candidates’ requirement. The class timings of weekdays batches are 8 AM to 10 AM, 10 AM to 12 PM, 12 PM to 2 PM, 2 PM to 4 PM and 6 PM to 8 PM while the class timings for weekend batches are 10 AM to 12 PM and 12 PM to 2 PM.


SSC CGL 2017 exam is a computer based online examination. It is organized into four phases as per Tier 1, Tier 2, Tier 3 and Tier 4. Tier 1 and Tier 2 tests are held online while Tier 3 is a descriptive type test. Finally the selected candidates are called for interview in Tier 4

SSC CGL Exam Pattern

SSC CGL Exam pattern 2017 Tier 1
Part Subject No. of Questions Max. Marks Time allowed
A General Intelligence & Reasoning 25 50 75 minutes

(For VH and candidates suffering from Cerebral Palsy: 100 Minutes)

B General Knowledge & Awareness?(Syllabus) 25 50
C Quantitative Aptitude 25 50
D English 25 50
Total 100 200

Note that there will be negative marking of 0.50 for each wrong answer in Tier-I.

The?registration plus demo class?for fresh batches?of?SSC CGL 2017 Tier-1 Coaching?have started. Be the first to register your slot for getting immediate benefit.

For More Information Contact

Janak Puri??Branch

Competition Gurukul
A-1/17, Janakpuri, Main Najafgarh Road,
Opp Metro Pillar 636, New Delhi ? 110058

Uttam Nagar Branch

A-38, 39, 40, Opposite Metro Pillar no: 641,
Uttam Nagar, Near Uttam Nagar East Metro Station, New Delhi –


Reading Comprehension Strategy & Practice Set-1 for SSC/Bank/Other Exams

Image result for reading comprehension tricks

Reading Comprehension is a test of an examiner’s reading skill and his/her understanding for the matter under stud. For efficient and effective result in reading comprehension in exam, a candidate is required to keep few things in mins:

  1. Always start reading the questions first from passage instead of reading the whole passage again and again. This saves your appreciable time. The reading of questions give you enough idea about the passage that you can’t obtain through reading the passage
  2. Try to give the answers of questions roughly and logically because there are certain questions which don’t require to answer after reading the passage. Logically assume the answer of each question roughly.
  3. ?Finally, go to the particular part of the passage matching the portion of the asked question to verify the answers assumed by you beforehand. By doing so, you will find that you are correct at most of the instances. For the rest of the part, you can apply your logic to get the suitable answer.

Note that: It is not always possible to obtain the answer as it is from the passage. Rather, many times, the answers come out from the passage suiting it context and tone.


Directions (Q.1-10): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below. Certain words/phrases have been printed in bold to help you locate them.

The Tamil Nadu government?s move to approach the Supreme Court seeking a review of its recent judgment barring the use of pictures of political leaders in government advertisements is retrograde and unnecessary. The court?s verdict restricting the list of dignitaries whose photographs are permissible on government advertisement material to the President, the Prime Minister and the Chief Justice of India, is a significant step in eliminating the partisan use of government resources to gain political mileage. Indeed, if there is a flaw in the judgment, it is in the exception made in favour of the holders of these three offices. Even though it says the President, Prime Minister or CJI could themselves decide on the inclusion of their pictures in advertisements, there really is no need for anyone?s image in such material if disseminating information is the sole purpose. The Tamil Nadu government has argued that there should be parity between the Centre and the States, and that the judgment, by privileging the dignitaries at the Centre, violates the principle of federalism. It is indeed an attractive argument if one contends that the same privilege should be extended to the Governor, Chief Minister and Chief Justice of the High Court so that there is Centre-State parity. However, the spirit of the verdict is to take government advertising out of the domain of partisan politics. In course of time, the apparent disparity should also give way to a universal prohibition of the use of pictures of any dignitary.

It is disappointing that the court did not accept a key recommendation made by a three-member committee that there should be special curbs on government advertisements during election time. This could have been an important guideline that would further purify the election process. The court may be confident that if the government adhered to norms there will be no need to adopt special, election-eve restrictions, but it should have taken note of the propensity of the political class to seek to gain mileage by delivering politically loaded messages using the official machinery during election time. In a democracy, the main reason for a government to issue advertisements is dissemination of essential and useful information about its functioning, its schemes and projects and their benefits. There is no real need to confer on any individual the privilege of being projected in official publicity material to give the impression that a scheme or measure owes its existence to the generosity of that individual. One can discern in the Tamil Nadu government?s review petition only an eagerness to overcome any legal impediment to its known penchant for projecting the ruling party leader as the sole benefactor behind its welfare programmes.

Q.1.Choose an appropriate title for the passage.

1) The Strict Judgement

2) SC Rule

3) Restless Politicians

4) The Un-Political War

5) Misplaced Plea

Q.2.Which of the following is true according to the passage?

  1. A) The Court?s decision is not only for the centre, but also for the states.
  2. B) The spirit of the verdict is not to take government advertising out of the domain of partisan politics.
  3. C) The court may be confident that if the government adhered to norms there will be no need to adopt special, election-eve restrictions.

1) Only A

2) Only B

3) Only C

4) All A, B and C

5) None

Q.3.What is the reason behind author suggesting that the head of the state should also be given the privilege?

1) This barring list is the exclusive list where the High profile people are Definitely included.

2) The political class is so corrupt that the head of the states should also be included in the list.

3) The Head of the states are the people representing the whole state and the supreme court should take care of them.

4) The head of the state should also be given the same privilege as centre is to maintain the parity between them.

5) None of the above.

Q.4.Which of the following is not true according to the passage?

  1. A) The court did not accept a key recommendation made by a three-member committee that there should be special curbs on government advertisements during election time.
  2. B) There is no real need to confer on any individual the privilege of being projected in official publicity material to give the impression that a scheme or measure owes its existence to the generosity of that individual
  3. C) If there is a flaw in the judgment, it is in the exception made in favour of the holders of these three offices.

1) Only A

2) Only B

3) Only C

4) All A, B and C

5) None

Q.5.Which of the following is a significant step in eliminating the image of the govt. to gain political mileage?

1) The court?s verdict restricting the list of dignitaries whose photographs are permissible on government advertisement.

2) The Govt. advertisement should be banned coz people should know all about it through the benefits, not through advertisement.

3) The govt should ban the usage of advertisement and start doing something with that fund.

4) All of the above

5) None of the above
Q.6.Which of the following is not the synonym of the word ?retrograde??
1) Subside
2) Positive
3) Moderate
4) Suspend
5) Anarchy

Q.7.Which of the following is not the synonym of the word ?partisan??
1) Comparable
2) Improve
3) Antipathy
4) Unbiased
5) Dislike

Q.8.Which of the following is the synonym of the word ?disseminating??
1) Improve
2) Inform
3) Promulgate
4) Approval
5) Guile

Q.9.Which of the following is the synonym of the word ?penchant??
1) Approbation
2) Apprise
3) Diligent
4) Hard
5) Proclivity

Q.10.Which of the following is the synonym of the word ?parity??
1) Ease
2) Equality
3) Pompous
4) Insensitive
5) Boorish


  1. (5)
  2. (3)
  3. (4)
  4. (5)
  5. (1)
  6. (2)
  7. (4)
  8. (3)
  9. (5)
  1. (2)

Note: The extract of above passage is taken from?The Hindu, Delhi Edition, 25th May

Competition Gurukul’s Wizards of 2016

Competition Gurukul, on behalf of its entire fraternity of Baluja Education Society, wants to congratulate all the selected students of Competition Gurukul in various exams conducted from the year 2015 to mid – 2016. All the students have shown tremendous effort not only to crack these exams but many of them have proven that one can create history by rock solid determination, shear hard work and meticulous smart strategies. ?We can rightly conclude that, “they came, they saw and?they conquered” what they wanted.

competition result vinal final

Competition Gurukul is the sister institute of Baluja Institute, Janak Puri. Even though Baluja Institute is engaged in providing technical education & training for past 18 years, Competition Gurukul has created its own niche in the field of Competitive Exam preparation and professional coaching in a very short time span. The main credit for this goes to Ms. G.K Baluja (Chairman & MD of Baluja Education Society) and the working staff of Competition Gurukul – both teaching and non teaching whose dedication, professionalism and dynamic work culture have helped the students to get what they required during smart preparation and quality coaching to crack various competitive and entrance exams – SSC, Bank, CTET, CLAT, LEET, NDA, HM, Polytechnic, B.Ed and B.El.Ed.

Words from Our Chairman & MD?

“Hello students and their respected parents. Competition Gurukul is a top class institute with world class infrastructure and extraordinary competitive environment. We have one of the best faculty in coaching field ?with years of experience and smart teaching methodologies. At Competition Gurukul, we cater for the quality of coaching and smart preparation which is a requisite to crack any competitive as well as entrance exam.”

image1Ms. G.K. Baluja

“Our classroom coaching program is well designed and tested that helps students not only to crack a exam for which they enroll in our institute but also lead them to achieve what they desire to achieve. Our this year’s result at ?various exams is a proof of it. Our both teaching and non-teaching staff works stupendously and consistently with total devotion to provide all beneficiaries of quality coaching to students. I feel proud to lead such a dedicated staff and the organization. I welcome all students of various exams to come and join our institute to get immediate benefit and desired result from the coaching”

For More Information Contact

Janak Puri??Branch

Competition Gurukul
A-1/17, Janakpuri, Main Najafgarh Road,
Opp Metro Pillar 636, New Delhi ? 110058

Uttam Nagar Branch

A-38, 39, 40, Opposite Metro Pillar no: 641,
Uttam Nagar, Near Uttam Nagar East Metro Station, New Delhi

SSC CHSL 2016 Exam Notification

SSC, which stands for?Staff Selection Commission, conducts ?the Combined Higher Secondary Level (CHSL) Examination?every year. This exam is conducted for the recruitment for the post of ?Lower Division Clerk (LDC), Data Entry Operator (DEO),?and Postal Assistant/Sorting Assistant posts. SSC CHSL registration process?is going to be notified soon. You can obtain the latest detail in this regard from our website


?Important Tentative Dates for SSC CHSL 2016

S.No Event Date
1 Release of Application form (not notified yet)
2 Last date of Offline Application Form (not notified yet)
3 Last date of Online Application Form (not notified yet)
4 Issue of E- Admit Card 1?week of September 2016
5 Date of Examination 25?Sept 2016, 9?Oct 2016 & 16?Oct 2016
6 Declaration of Exam Result January 2017
7 Skill Test/Typing Test March 2017
8 Declaration of Final Result May 2017

SSC CHSL Salary 2016

Post Grade Pay Gross Salary In Hand Salary
LDC 1900 Rs. 22,392 ? 26,026 Rs. 18,777 ? 22,411
DEO 2400 Rs. 29,340 ? 35,220 Rs. 25,165 ? 31,045
Postal Assistant 2400 Rs. 29,340 ? 35,220 Rs. 25,165 ? 31,045

?Post wise Vacancy of?SSC CHSL 2016

  • Data Entry Operator ? 1,010
  • Lower Division Clerk ? 2,053
  • Postal/Sorting Assistant ? 3,527

Eligibility Criteria of SSC CHSL 2016?

  • Age Limit ? Minimum age is 18 years and maximum age is 27 years as on 1 August 2016. Age relaxation provided to certain categories as per the government rules.
  • Educational Qualification ? Candidates must have passed 12th Standard or equivalent examination from a recognized Board or University.

Application Form of?SSC CHSL 2016?

Interested and eligible candidates can visit the official website of SSC to apply for SSC CHSL 2016 Exam.

Application Fee / Mode of Payment?

  • Online Application ? Candidates have to pay fee of Rs. 100, candidates can pay application fee through challan at any SBI branch, net banking and any credit/debit cards. (SC/ ST/ Female / PH category aspirants no need to pay any fee).
  • Offline Application ? Candidates have to pay a fee of Rs. 100 as application fee through CRF stamps which can be bought from the post office. Fee is exempted for all female candidates and reservation category as per the rule of Government of India.

Selection Procedure of SSC CHSL 2016

Selection process includes two steps:

  • Written Examination of 200 Marks?(Objective Type)?
  • Skill Test (candidates who qualify the written examination will be called for typing test)

In Case of Tie

In case where more than one candidate score equal aggregates marks, a tie breaker will be applied:

  • Marks score in written examination.
  • According to the date of birth, who is senior in the age.
  • Alphabetical order in which first names of the candidates appear.

Exam Pattern & Syllabus SSC CHSL 2016?

  • There will be 4 sections in a question paper namely
    (1) General Intelligence,
    (2) English Language,
    (3) Quantitative Aptitude, and
    (4) General Awareness /?General Knowledge.
  • Exam will have 200 questions for 200 marks.
  • Duration of the exam is 2 hours.
  • The question paper will be objective type.
  • Questions will be set both in English & Hindi for?sections ? 1, 3 & 4.
  • There will be negative marking of 0.25 marks for each wrong answer.

SSC Coaching for Tier-1 Exam of 2016 Session – Register for Fresh Batch Today

ddddCompetition Gurukul is successfully running the Special Batches for SSC CGL Coaching for the session 2016. We had in our previous blog (visit here to read previous blog) had provided the necessary details of the features and new innovative segments included in our special batches for SSC CGL Coaching – 2016.?? Till then we have covered various segments of this program stupendously and we are confident that by the time exam day comes, our candidates will be fully able to crack Tier-1?of the SSC CGL Exam 2016.

But we know many candidates are there who have unlikely missed this program. For them, we have organized special batches that will cover all the segments of SSC CGL Coaching 2016 program in effective manner that will sure your success in First phase of exam. Our Management is co-operative, responsible and are experienced to cover the contents swiftly with positive results? in a short while. So, don’t wait since you have already passed important part of your year in just searching for good institute. We are here with positive and valid results. Register for demo class today, take admission and then see the results….


Important features of Our?SSC CGL?Special?Coaching Program for 2016

  • Complete SSC CGL Syllabus Coverage?before Exam. ?Click here to know more
  • Individual faculty for each subject
  • Highly qualified, ethical, professional,?and resposible?faculty
  • Well formatted,?revised,? precised and higly graded study materials
  • OMR based?latest exam pattern based regular test?on every weekend
  • Regular?doubts sessions and backup classes on weekends
  • Video lectures?plus?backup classes to those who misses?our regular lecture with a?genuine reason
  • Free online resources including pdf and video lectures.?Click here to know about?our resources
  • Special Seminar & Phsycology sessions?for candidates to boost up their morale for cracking the entrance exam

The Demo classes for?fresh batches of Special SSC CGL?Tier-1 Exam Coaching 2016?have started. You can register your slot for demo class on the contact information given at the end of this blog.

Our Important Links

For More Information Contact

Janak Puri??Branch

Competition Gurukul
A-1/17, Janakpuri, Main Najafgarh Road,
Opp Metro Pillar 636, New Delhi ? 110058

Call 011-41668088, 9716942388

Uttam Nagar Branch

A-38, 39, 40, Opposite Metro Pillar no: 641,
Uttam Nagar, Near Uttam Nagar East Metro Station, New Delhi – 110058

SMS ‘COMHELP’ to 9015596280

Fresh Batches for SSC CGL/CHSL Coaching 2016 – Register Today for Free Demo Class

SSC (Staff Selection Commission) i.e????????? ??? ???? ( in Hindi)?is an?authorized recruitment organization of??Government of India?which recruits staff for various posts in the Ministries, Departments?and Subordinate Offices of Government of India.


The SSC has released it’s 2016 dates for SSC Tier-1 and Tier-2 Exams (note that Tier -2 is not held for CHSL) for various departments Group-B and Group-C Posts including:
Group-B Posts ?:?Assistant Section Officer (CSS) ,?Assistant (IB, CVC, Ministry of Railways, Ministry of External Affairs,?AFHQ),?Inspector (Central Excise) , Inspector (Preventive Office), Inspector (Examiner), Assistant Enforcement Officer, Indian Audit & Accounts Department under CAG, Sub Inspector, Statistical Investigator Gr.II, etc.
Group-C Posts ?:?Inspector of Income Tax,?Divisional Accountant,?Auditor,?Accountant/ Junior Accountant,?Senior Secretariat Assistant,?Tax Assistant,?Compiler,?Sub Inspector.

Competition Gurukul is a premier coaching institute for SSC CGL/CHSL Exam Preparation. At Competition Gurukul, you get a Competitive Environment?with small batch of 25 to 30 Students which take full care of your concept development, doubts clearance and your performance assessment that helps the candidate to crack SSC SGL/ CHSL Exam easily with 40+ correct answers?out of 50?questions?in each subject – Quantitative Aptitude, English Language, General Studies & G.K and Logical Reasoning & Intelligence.

Tier I Exam Pattern

Sr. No. Subjects Name Max Marks Time Duration
1 General Intelligence Reasoning 50 02 Hours (02.40 Hrs for VH Candidates)
2 Gen. Awareness 50
3 Quantitative Aptitude 50
4 English Comprehension 50
Total 200

Tier II Exam Pattern

Sr. No. Subjects Name Max Marks Max Ques. Time Duration
1 General Studies (Finance and Economics) 200 To Be Notified Later 02 Hours (02.40 Hrs for VH Candidates)
2 Statistics 200 100
3 Quantitative Abilities 200 100
4 English Language & Comprehension 200 200
Total 800

At Competition Gurukul, we provide following benefits and measures that is required to make an institute perfect for making preparation for?SSC CGL/CHSL Exam

  • Complete coverage of SSC CGL/CHSL Exam
  • Individual faculty and teaching experts for each subject
  • Interactive session of Concept development and trick learning
  • Extensive Classroom Training
  • Weekly Exam pattern based test with OMR sheet facility with?Periodic Tests, Mock Test and Speed Tests
  • Huge number of quality sessions for subject like on General Awareness,Reasoning, Quantitative Aptitude ?and Service Aptitude
  • Weekend doubt classes to get your doubts cleared
  • Online test facility if you are not able to appear for offline test
  • Backup class for students who misses the class with genuine reason
  • Free revised and highly upgraded study materials
  • Free Online ?Academic Support, online study materials and video lectures
  • Free Wifi and Computer Lab facility to fill forms and get latest exam updates
  • Effective Coaching environment at a moderate fee


The registration plus demo class?for fresh batches?of?SSC CGL/CHSL Exam Coaching?have begun. Be the first to register your slot for getting immediate benefit.

For More Information Contact

Janak Puri??Branch

Competition Gurukul
A-1/17, Janakpuri, Main Najafgarh Road,
Opp Metro Pillar 636, New Delhi ? 110058

Uttam Nagar Branch

A-38, 39, 40, Opposite Metro Pillar no: 641,
Uttam Nagar, Near Uttam Nagar East Metro Station, New Delhi – 110058

Best Coaching Center for SSC in Uttam Nagar & Janakpuri – Delhi

SSC CGL (Combined Graduate Level) Examination

The Examination will be conducted in three tiers as indicated below:

  • Tier -I — Written Examination (Objective Multiple Choice Type)
  • Tier -II — Written Examination (Objective Multiple Choice Type)
  • Tier -III — Personality Test /Interview/Computer Proficiency Test or Skill Test

NOTE:?Tier-I examination will be used to screen the candidates for appearing in Tier-II examination. However, marks of such screened candidates in Tier-I will be taken into account for final ranking of candidates for selecting them for the interview/skill test and also final selection.


Tier ?I exam consist of only one paper that would be common for all categories of posts and will be held in one session.

Part Subject Maximum Marks / Questions Total Duration (GE) Total Duration for? visually handicapped candidates
A. General Intelligence & Reasoning 50 2 hours 2 hours 40 min
B. General Awareness 50
C Numerical Aptitude 50
D English Comprehension 50
Total Marks 200
  • There will be negative marking of 0.25 marks for each wrong answer.
  • The questions will be set both in Hindi and English in respect of Parts A, B and C.



  • Tier-II consists of three different papers/subjects and depending upon the category of posts applied for, the candidates are needed to appear in two or three papers.


PaperNo. Subject / Paper? Max. Marks/Questions Duration & Timings forGeneral candidates Duration & Timingsfor VH candidates
I Arithmetical Ability 200 (100 Questions) 2Hours 2 Hours and 40 Min.
II English Language &Comprehension 200 (100 Questions) 2Hours 2 Hours and 40 Min.
III Commerce/Mathematics


200 (100 Questions) 2Hours 2 Hours and 40 Min.
  • Paper-I & II are compulsory for all the categories of posts.
  • Paper-III is compulsory only for those candidates who apply for the posts of Statistical Investigators Group II & Compiler.
  • There will be negative marking of 0.25 marks for each wrong answer.
    • Personality Test/ interview will carry a maximum of 100 marks.
    • Candidates applying for Auditor, Accountant, UDCs, Tax Assistant, and Compiler are not required to appear for an interview.


    • Computer Proficiency Test (CPT) for post of Assistant in CSS only. This test is of qualifying nature and has components of Word Processing, Spread Sheets and generation of slides.
    • Skill Test is applicable for the post of Tax Assistants (Central Excise and Income Tax). To get qualified, one should score Data Entry Speed Skill Test at 2000 (two thousand) key depressions for a duration of 15 (fifteen) minutes.

Details About SSC CGL Exam

Earlier SSC used to conduct recruitment through following examinations

(a) Combined Graduate Level Examination.
(b) Tax Assistant Examination.
(c) Section Officer (Commercial Audit)Examination
(d) Section Officer (Audit)Examination
(e) Complier (for O/o RGI)Examination
(f) Statistical Investigator Grade-II (for M/o Statistics & Prog. Implementation)Examination
(g) Sub-Inspector in CPOs Examination


Demo Class



Tuesday 11:30 – 12:30 Reasoning
12:30 – 01:30 Quantitative Aptitude
Wednesday 11:30 – 12:30 English
12:30 – 01:30 Quantitative Aptitude
Friday 11:30 – 12:30 G.S
12:30 – 01:30 Quantitative Aptitude


Batch Timings



Mon – Friday Morning 08:00 – 10:00, 10:00 – 01:00
Evening 5:30 – 07:30
Saturday 11:30 – 12:30 Test Series
Sunday Self Preparation

SSC/Delhi Police/SI/ASI/Sarkari Naukri History Chapter on Mughal Empire In India

Competition Gurukul presents the latest & revised notes for SSC/Delhi Police/SI/ASI/Sarkari Naukri Recruitment Exam. All aspirants are advised to go through the notes thoroughly.

The Mughal Empire of India

  • The Mughal era is the historic period of the Mughal Empire in India, it ran from the early sixteenth century, to a point in the early eighteenth century when the Mughal Emperors power had
  • It ended in several generations of conflicts between rival
  • During the Mughal period, art and architecture flourished and many beautiful monuments were The rulers were skillful warriors and admirers of art as well.
  • The Mughal Empire lasted for more than three The Mughal Empire was one of the largest centralized states in premodern history and was the precursor to the British Indian Empire.

The Mughal Emperors?

? Babur (1526 ? 1530)

? Humayun (1530 ? 40 & 1555 ? 1556)

? Akbar (1556 ? 1605)

? Jahangir (1605 ? 1627)

? Shahjahan (1628 ? 1658)

?Aurangzeb Alamgir

Babar Emperor (1526 ? 1530)

  • Was a descended of Timur on his father?s side and Chengiz Khan on his mother?s. His family belonged to the Chaghtai section of the Turkish race and were commonly known as Mughals.
  • Originally ruled over Ferghana (Afghanistan). He became the Sultan at the early age of 12, when his father Sultan Umar Shaikh Mirza died.
  • He was invited to attack India by Daulat Khan Lodhi (Subedar of Punjab), Alam Khan (uncle of Ibrahim Lodhi) and Rana Sanga. Defeated Ibrahim Lodi in the First Battle of Panipat in 1526.

  • In this Babar used the Rumi (Ottoman) device of lashing a large number of carts to form a defending wall with breastwork in between to rest guns (Tulghama system of warfare). His artillery was led by Ustad Ali?and Mustafa.
  • Defeated Sangram Singh (Rana Sanga) of Mewar in the Battle of Khanua in This weakened the Rajput confederacy and strengthened Babar?s position. Babar took the tide of ?Ghazi? after that.
  • Defeated another Rajput ruler, Medini Rai (of Chanderi) in the Battle of Chanderi in
  • Defeated the Afghan chiefs under Mahmud Lodi brother of Ibrahim Lodi) in the Battle of Ghagra in
  • His victories led to rapid popularization of gunpowder and artillery in
  • Died in 1530. Buried at Aram Bagh in Agra; later his body was taken to Aram Bagh,
  • His memoir, the Tazuk ? i ? Baburi in Turki language is a classic of world It shows his humane outlook and sensitivity to the beauty of nature. Also wrote ?Masnavf.

Note : After the Kushans, Babur was the first to bring Kabul and Kandahar into the Indian Empire, which provided stability since it was the staging post of invasions of India.

This helped in promoting trade since these towns were the starting points of caravans meant for China in the east and Mediterranean in the west.

Humayun (1530 ? 40 and 1555 ? 56)

  • He was born to Mahim Begam and Babur. The throne inherited by Humayun was? not a bed of roses.
  • Babar had practically got no time to consolidate his position and Before he could put the whole country on a stable basis, he was gone.
  • He did a blunder by dividing his empire among his three brothers ? Kamran, Hindal and?Askari.
  • Built Dinpanah at Delhi as his second?capital.
  • Defeated the Afghan forces at Daurah in?1532.
The Afghan Interlude

Sher Shah Suri History(1540 ? 1545)?

  • Real name was Given the title Sher Khan by Babar Khan Lohani (Governor of Bihar) who appointed him Vakil (deputy).
  • Became the master of Delhi after the exit of
  • Crushed the Rajput forces of Marwar at Samel in
  • Died in 1545 while campaigning against Kalinjar

Shershah?s Administration :

  • For administrative convenience, Shershah divided his whole empire into 47 divisions called sarkars, and sarkars into smaller In the field of central administration, Shershah followed the Sultanate pattern. There were?? four main central departments, viz, Diwan ? i ? wizarat, Diwan ? i ? arz, Diwan ? i ? insha and Diwan ?? i ?? rasalat.
  • His Land Revenue System is noteworthy as he classified his land under 3 heads ? good, middle and bad, and?claimed 1 / 3rd of the produce. Land was measured by using the Sikandari ? gaz? (32? points). ?Todarmal contributed greatly in the development of revenue policy of Shershah. Akbar also adopted the same revenue policy, albeit with some amendments.
  • Shershah personally supervised the recruitment of the soldiers and paid them directly, He revived Alauddin?s system of branding the horses (daag) and keeping a descriptive roll of soldiers (chehra).
  • Shershah introduced a regular postal service. He also attempted to fix standard weights and
  • Introduced the silver ?Rupaya? and the copper ?Dam? and abolished all old and mixed metal? ?He promoted the cause of trade and commerce by reducing the number of the customs duty collection points to just two :
  1. Goods produced in Bengal or imported from outside had to pay customs duty at Sikrigali (at the border of Bengal and Bihar).
  1. For the goods coming from West and Central Asia at the?at the Indus.
  • Shershah improved communication by building The roads built by Shershah are called ?the arteries of the empire?. Sarais were built on roads. He restored the old imperial road called Grand Trunk road, from the Indus River to Sonargaor, in Bengal.
  • Built his tomb at Sasaram in Bihar.
  • Built a new city on the bank of Yamuna River (present day Purana Qila).
  • Malik Mohammad Jaisi composed Padmavat (in Hindi) during his
  • Abbas Khan Sarwani was his historian, who wrote Tarikh ? i ?
  • Sher Shah Suri gradually gained power during his
  • He was attacked by Sher Shah at Chausa (Battle of Chausa) in 1539, but Here Humayun was saved by Nizam, a water carrier (saqqa).

  • But in the Battle of Kannauj (also called Battle of Bilgram) in 1540, he was defeated by Sher Shah and?had to flee.
  • Passed nearly 15 years (1540 ? 1555) in?exile.
  • First fled to Sind, which was under Shah Hussain Arghuna. In 1545, he went to the Persian emperor?s
  • Had the chance to return in Sher Shah, the victor of Kannauj, died in 1545. He was succeeded by his son Islam Shah, who ruled up to 1553. He was succeeded by Muhammad Adil Shah.
  • He was very fond of pleasures and left the affairs of his government in the hands of Hemu, his His authority was challenged by Ibrahim Shah and Sikandar Shah. There were a large number of? bloody battles among the various rivals. The net result of all this was that the Suri Empire was broken up.
  • Bairam Khan, his most faithful officer, helped him in this.
  • Died in 1556, due to a fall from his library building stairs (Sher Mandal, Delhi) seven months after he captured It is said about him that ?Humayun tumbled through life and he tumbled out of it?.
  • Gulbadan Begum, his half ? sister, wrote Humayun ? nama.

History of Akbar (1556 ? 1605)

  • Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar was the son of Humayun and Hamida Banu He was born at Amarkot in 1542.
  • Bairam Khan coronated him at Kalanaur when he was 14 years
  • Bairam Khan represented him in the Second Battle of Panipat in 1556 against Hemu. Hemu, the PM of Muhammad Shah Adil of Bengal, was defeated. Hemu is considered the last Hindu king of Delhi.

  • Between 1556 ? 1560, Akbar ruled under Bairam Khan?s (Bairam Khan was as sassinated at Patan, Gujarat, on his way to Mecca by one of his old Afghani enemies).
  • Conquered Malwa in 1561 defeating Baz He was later made the Mansabdar to honour his skill as a musician.
  • Then defeated Garh ? Katanga (ruled by Rani Durgawati) followed by Chittor and
  • Akbar followed a policy of reconciliation with the Some of the Rajput princes entered into matrimonial alliances with him. In 1562, he married the eldest daughter of Raja Bharmal of Jaipur. In 1570, he married princesses from Bikaner and Jaisalmer. In 1584, Prince Salim was married to the daughter of Raja Bhagwan Das. All these activities paved the way for friendship between Rajputs and Mughals (except Mewar).
  • Won Gujarat in It was in order to commemorate his victory of Gujarat that Akbar got the Buland Darwaza constructed at Fatehpur Sikri.

  • Fought Battle of Haldighati with Mewar forces on 18 Jun, Mughals were represented by Raja Maan Singh and Rajputs by Rana Pratap Singh. Rajputs were defeated.
  • Raja Maan Singh conquered Bihar, Bengal and Orissa for
  • In 1586, he conquered Kashmir and in 1593, he conquered His last conquest was at the fort of Asirgarh in Deccan.
  • At his death in 1605, his empire included Kashmir, Sind, Kandhar and extended as far as the Godavary in the
Maharana Pratap :

A Rajput ruler of Mewar, he belonged to the Sisodia clan of Suryavanshi Rajputs. He was a son of Udai Singh II. In 1568, during the reign of Udai Singh II, Mewar was conquered by the Akbar.

Battle of Haldighati was fought on Jun 18, 1576, in which Maharana Pratap was defeated by Akbar?s army, led by Raja Maan Singh. Maharana had to flee the field on his trusted horse Chetak.

Thereafter, Pratap had to retreat into the Aravallis from where he continued his struggle through the tactics of guerilla warfare. Using the hills as his base, Pratap harassed the large and therefore awkward mughal forces in their encampments.

He ensured that the mughal occupying force in Mewar never knew peace. Rana Pratap died of injuries sustained in a hunting accident.

Important aspects of Akbar?s Rule :

  • Ralph Fitch (1585) was the first Englishman to visit Akbar?s
  • Abolished jaziyah in 1564 and the tax on pilgrims. The use of beef was also forbidden
  • Regularly visited the shrine of Sheikh Muinuddin Chishti at
  • Believed in Sulh ? i ? Kul or peace?to all.

  • Built Ibadatkhana (Hall of prayers) at Fatehpur Sikri. He used to conduct religious discussions there with : Purshottam Das (Hindu), Maharaji Rana (Parsi), Harivijaya Suri (Jain), Monserate and Aquaviva (Christian).
  • In 1579, Akbar issued the ?Decree of Infallibility.
  • Formulated an order called Din ? i ? Ilahi or Tauhid ? i ? Ilahi in 1581. Birbal, Abul Fazl and Faizi joined the order.
  • His Land Revenue System was known as Todar Mai Bandobast or Zabti Three salient features of Zabti system were ? measurement of land, classification of land and fixation of rates. Todar Mai and Muzaffar Khan Turbati were the important revenue officers.
  • Also introduced the Mansabdary System to organise the nobility as well as the Mansabdar meant holder ofa rank. There were two ranks: Zat and Sawar. Zat fixed the status and standing in the administrative hierarchy while sawar fixed the number of troopers held by the Mansabdar. It wasn?t a hereditary ?system.
Akbar?s Navratna History :

  • Abu?l ? Fazl, the Wazir of Akbar and author of the Akbamama an account of Akbar?s He also led the Mughal imperial army in its wars in the Deccan. He was assassinated in a plot contrived by Akbar?s son, Salim.
  • Faizi was historian Abul Fazl?s brother in Akbar?s He was a poet composing in Persian and an all ? round genius. Akbar highly recognized the genius in him and appointed him teacher for his son and gave place to him among his decorative ?Nau Ratnas?. His famous work Lilabati is on mathematics.
  • Tansen, believed to be one of the greatest musician of all times, was born in a Hindu family in Gwalior. He servedas the court musician to King Ramachandra of Mewar and later to Akbar.
  • Tansen accepted Islam at the hands of the great Sufi mystic and saint ? Shaykh Muhammad Ghaus of Gwalior. It was believed that Tansen made miracles such as bringing rain and fire through singing the ragas Megh Malhar and Deepak,
  • Raja Birbal, alias Mahesh Das, was a courtier in the administration of Akbar. Birbal was referred to as a court witas a result of the fact that he frequently had witty and humorous exchanges with ?Akbar.
  • He was a poet and author whose wit and wisdom led the Emperor Akbar to invite him to be a part of the royal court and to bestow upon him a new name ? Birbal. Akbar also conferred on him the title of ?Raja?.
  • Raja Todar Mai was Akbar?s finance minister, who overhauled the revenue system in the He introduced standard weights and measurements, revenue districts and officers.

  • His systematic approach to revenue collection became a model for the future Mughals as well as the Hehad developed his expertise while working under Sher Shah. In 1582, Akbar bestowed on the raja the title Diwan? i ? Ashraf.
  • Raja Man Singh was the Kacchwaha raja of He was a mansabdar and a trusted general of Akbar. He was the grandson of Akbar?s father ? in ? law, Bharmal and the adopted son of Raja Bhagwan Das.

  • He assisted Akbar in many battles including the well ? known | battle of Haldighati, among He also led campaigns in Orissa and Bengal.
  • Abdul Rahim Khan ? e ? Khana was a poet and the son of Akbar?s trusted caretaker, Bairam After Bairam Khan was murdered,

    Bairan Khan?s wife became the second wife of Akbar, which made Abdul Rahim Khan ? e ? Khan his stepson. He had a high place I among Akbar?s Navratnas. Although a Muslim by birth, he was a devotee of Lord Krishna.
  • Faqir Aziao Din was one of Akbar?s chief

  • Mullah Do Piaza was among the Mughal emperor Akbar?s chief Akbar regarded his advice in high esteem.

History of Jahangir (1605 ? 1627)?

  • Akbar?s eldest son Salim assumed the title of Nuruddin Muhammad Jahangir and ascended the throne.

  • He mostly lived in Lahore which he adorned with gardens and
  • But soon, his eldest son Khusro revolted,?which was suppressed.
  • The fifth Sikh guru, Guru Arjun Dev, had helped Khusro. So he was also executed after 5 days of torture.

  • Rana Amar Singh (son of Maharana Pratap) of Mewar submitted before Jahangir in Rana?s son Karan Singh was made a mansabdar in the Mughal court.
  • Faced a formidable opponent in Malik Amber in his expedition to Ahmednagar.
  • His greatest failure was the loss of Kandahar?to Persia in 1622.
  • The most important event in Jahangir?s life was his marriage to Mehr ? un ? Nisa, the widow of Sher Afghani in The title of Nur Jahan was conferred on her.

  • She had great influence on Jahangir?s life, as she was given the status of Padshah Begum, coins were struck in her name and all royal farmans?beared her
  • She got high positions for her father (Itmad ? ud ? daulah), and her brother (Asaf Khan). She married Asaf?s daughter, Mumtaz Mahal to Khurram (later, Shahjahan). This cemented the alliance? between? Nurjahan, her father, Asaf Khan ?and Khurram.
  • This alliance practically ruled the empire for 10 Problem arose when Nur Jahan married her daughter by Sher Afghani to Jahangir?s youngest son, Shahryar. Now Nur Jahan supported him for the heir ? apparent.
  • All these events hampered the military events for the recovery of Kandhar.
  • Had a chain of justice outside his palace in Agra (called Zanzir ? i ? Adil). He also laid a number of gardens, such as the Shalimar and Nishat gardens in?Kashmir.

  • Captain Hawkins (1608 ? 11) and Sir Thomas Roe (1615 ? 1619) visited his Due to the efforts of Sir Thomas Roe English factories were established at Surat and some other places.
  • Pietra Valle, famous Italian traveler came during his?reign.
  • Tobacco growing started during his reign. It was brought by the Portuguese.

History of Shahjahan (1628 ? 1658)

  • Able general and administrator.
  • Had to face revolts in Bundelkhand (Jujjhar Singh Bundela of Orchcha) and in the Deccan (Khan ? i ? Jahan Lodi) in the initial
  • Shahjahan?s policy of annexing the Deccan was quite Ahmednagar was annexed while Bijapur and Golconda accepted his overlordship.
  • Shahjahan also expelled the Portuguese from Hughli, as they were abusing their trading privileges.
  • In 1639, Shahjahan secured Kandahar and immediately fortified it. But Persia wrested Kandahar? from ?the Mughals in 1649. Shahjahan sent three expeditions to recover Kandahar, but all
  • Made his son, Aurangzeb, the Viceroy of Deccan in 1636. Aurangzeb first tenure was till
  • Aurangzeb?s second term as Viceroy in Deccan began in 1653 and continued till Aurangzeb built an effective Revenue System there (Murshid Kuli Khan was his dewan there).
  • Last 8 years of his life were very painful, as there was a brutal war of succession among his four sons ? Dara, Shuja, Aurangzeb and Murad. Dara was his favourite but Aurangzeb was the
  • Ultimately, Aurangzeb took control and he was made the prisoner in the Agra Fort, being looked after by his daughter, Jahan Ara, till his death in
  • His reign is considered the ?Golden Age of the Mughal Empire?.
  • 2 Frenchmen, Bernier and Tavernier, and an Italian adventurer Manucci, visited during his
History of Taj Mahal :
  • Taj Mahal, the eternal love monument is located in Agra. Shah Jahan commissioned its construction as a mausoleum lor his favourite wife, Arjumancl Bano Begum, better known as Mumtaz Mahal, in

  • It was constructed in 22 years (1631 ? 1653) by a workforce of 22,000. It is generally considered the finest example of Mughal
  • The Taj Mahal was not designed by a single The project demanded talent from many quarters. Ustad Isa and Isa Muhammad Effendi are edited with a key role in the architectural design of the complex.
  • The main dome was designed by Ismail Qazim Khan cast the solid gold finial that crowned the Turkish masters dome.
  • Chiranjilal was chosen as the chief sculptor and mosaicist. Amanat Khan was the chief?calligrapher.
  • Muhammad Hanif was the supervisor of Mir Abdul Karim and Mukkarimat Khan handled finances and the management of daily production.
  • The Taj rises on a high red sandstone base topped by a huge white marble terrace on which rests the famous dome flanked by four tapering minarets. Within the dome lies the jewel ? inlaid cenotaph of the?of the queen.

  • The only asymmetrical object in the Taj is the casket of the emperor which was built beside the queen?s as an It is often described as one of the seven wonders of the modern world.

Aurangzeb Alamgir (1658 ? 1707)

  • At the time of Shahjahan?s illness, Dara was in Delhi and the other brothers were in different places ? Shuja in Bengal, Murad in Gujarat and Aurangzeb in
  • Aurangzeb first defeated the Imperial army in the Battle of Dharmat and then defeated a force led by Dara in the Battle of
  • Thereafter, he entered Agraand crowned himself with the title of ?Alamgir? (conqueror of the world).
  • Under him, the Mughal Empire reached its greatest extent, and the largest single state ever known in India from the dawn of history to the rise of British Power was
  • His reign can be broadly divided into two 25 year periods: first in the affairs of India when the Maratha power under Shivaji emerged, and second marked by his preoccupations about the affairs of Deccan.
  • In his rule, various rebellions took place ? Jat peasantry at Mathura, Satnami peasantry in Punjab and Bundelas in
  • He caused serious rift in the Mughal-Rajput alliance by his policy of annexation of Marwar in 1639 after the death of Raja Jaswant
  • In 1675, he ordered the arrest and execution of ninth Sikh guru, Guru Tegh Bahadur

  • In 1679, he reimposed Also, Nauraj, singing in the court, and the practice of ?jharokha-darshan? were banned. Also forbade inscription of Kalima (the Muslim credo) on the coins.
  • When he was conducting the campaign against Marwar, his son Akbar rebelled in
  • The Mughal conquests reached the territorial climax during his reign, as Bijapur (1686) and Golconda (1687) were annexed to the Mughal The Mughal Empire stretched from Kashmir in die north to Jinji in the south, from the Hindukush in the west to Chittagong in the east.
  • Patronized the greatest digest of Muslim law in India, Fatwa-i-Alamgiri.
  • Mutasib (regulator of moral conduct) was
  • He was called a ?Darvesh? or a ?Zinda Pir?.
  • He also forbade?Sati.

Fall of Mughal Empire
  • The empire lost power after Aurangzeb?s rule. His successors were weak and incapable

Bahadur Shah (1707 ? 1712) : Assumed the title of Shah Alam I was also known as Shah ? i ? Bekhabar. He made peace with Guru Gobind Singh and Chhatrasal. He granted Sardeshmukhi to Marathas and also released Shahu.

  • Jahandar Shah (1712 ? 13) : First puppet Mughal emperor. He abolished
  • Farrukhsiyar (1713 ? 19) : Ascended the throne with the help of Sayyid He executed Banda Bahadur. Farrukhsiyar himself was murdered by the Sayyid brothers with Maratha help in 1719.
  • Mohammad Shah (1719 ? 48) : Nadir Shah (of Iran) defeated him in the Battle of Karnal (1739) and took away

Peacock throne and Kohinoor diamond. During his tenure, Chin Kilich Khan (Nizam ? ul ? Mulk) founded Hyderabad, Murshid Quli Khan founded Bengal and Saddat Khan laid down the foundation of Awadh out of the realms of Mughal Empire. He was a pleasure ? loving king and was nick ? named ?Rangeela.

  • Ahmad Shah (1748 ? 54) : During his period, Safdarjung, the nawab of Awadh, was the Wazir or Prime Minister

of the empire.

??????? Alamgir II (1754 ? 59)
  • Shah Alam II (1759 ? 1806) : Shah Alam II joined hands with Mir Qasim of Bengal and Shuja ? ud ? Daula of Awadh in the Battle of Buxar against the British in 1764. They were
Note :
  • Ambitious nobles became direct contenders of The Sayyid brothers (also known as King Makers) put three princes on the throne. Ultimately these brothers were murdered by a conspiracy between Mohammad Shah and Chin Kilich Khan (Nizam ? ul ? Muik).
  • One of the generals of Nadir Shah, Ahmed Shah Abdali, invaded India repeatedly between 1748 ? He defeated the Marathas in the Third Battle of Panipat in 1761. In this battle, Marathas were led by Sadashiv Rao Bhau, while the Peshwa at that time was Balaji Bajirao.
  • Akbar II (1806 ? 37) : He gave Rammohan the title ?Raja?. He sent Raja Ram Mohan Roy to London to seek a raise in his
  • Bahadur Shah II (1837 ? 57) : He was confined by the British to the Red During the revolt of 1857, he was proclaimed the Emperor by the rebels. He was deported to Rangoon after that.


Kohinoor Diamond History :
  • Kohinoor is a 105 carat (21.6 gm) diamond that was once the largest known diamond in the world it originated in India, belonged to various Indian and Persian rulers who fought bitterly over it at various points in history, and seized as a spoil of war, it became part of the Crown Jewels of England when Queen Victoria was proclaimed empress of India.
  • It is reputed to bring misfortune or death to any male who wears or owns Conversely, it is reputed to bring good luck to female owners.
  • Most sources agree that the Kohinoor was mined at Rayalaseema in Andhra It was first owned by Kakatiya dynasty, but the Kakatiya kingdom under Pratapa Rudra was ravaged in 1323 by Muhammad bin Tughluq.
  • From then onwards, the stone passed through the hands of successive rulers of the Delhi sultanate, finally

passing to Babur in 1526.

  • Shah Jahan had the stone placed into his ornate Peacock Throne. It was taken away by Nadir? Shah? in ?1739 along with the Peacock After the assassination of Nadir Shah in 1747 it came into the hands of Ahmed Shah Abdali of Afghanistan. It was passed down to his descendants until it was taken by Maharaja Ranjit Singh

ofPunjab in 1813.

  • From him, the gem passed on to the Ranjit Singhs successor, Duleep Singh gave the gem to Queen Victoria in 1851. In 1852, under the personal supervision of Victoria?s consort, Prince Albert, the diamond was cut from 1861 / 16 carats (37.21 gm) to its current 105.602 carats (21.61 gm), to increase its brilliance.
  • The stone is presently used as the centre piece of the crowns of the Queens consort of the United Queen Alexandra was the first to use the stone, followed by Queen Mary.
  • In 1936, the stone was set into the crown of the new Queen Elizabeth (later known as the Queen Mother), wife of King George VI. In 2002, the crown rested atop her coffin as she by in


Mughal Administration System
  • The entire kingdom was divided into suba or pranta, suba into sarkar, sarkar into pargana and the pargana into
  • Babar and Humayun had a Prime Minister known as The office of Vakil, was, however, discontinued after Bairam Khan.
  • Wazir was the Prime
  • Dewan was the head of the revenue
  • Mir Bakshi : Military
  • Khan ? i ? Saman : Royal
  • Qazi ? ul ? quzaf : Judicial Department. The qazis were helped by the
  • Sadr ? us ? Sadr : Charitable and religious
  • Mustaufi : Auditor ?


  • Amil : Judicial officer in civil and judicial
  • Quanungo : Head
  • Lambardar : Village
  • Patwari : Village
  • During Akbar?s reign the empire was divided into 15 subas. The number reached 21 during Aurangzeb?s
  • The territory of the empire was divided into khalisa (crown lands), jagirs (land granted to nobles) and inam (land granted to religious and learned men).


Mughal Buildings in India

Babar : Built two mosques: one at Kabulibagh in Panipat and the other in Sambhal in ?Rohilkhand.

Buildings in Humayun Empire
  • Laid the foundation of the city Din Panah at
  • Built Jamali Mosque and the Mosque of Isa Khan at
  • Humayun?s tomb is called the prototype of Taj Mahal. It was built by his widow Haji
Akbar Buildings :
  • Built Agra fort (in red sandstone).
  • He also built Fatehpur Sikri (city of victory) near In Fatehpur Sikri are the Panch Mahal, Diwan-I-Khas, Diwan-I-Aam, Jodhabai?s palace and Sheikh Salim Chishti?s tomb. Buland Darwaza (53 m high) is located here, commemorating the emperor?s conquest of Gujarat.
  • Built his own tomb at Sikandra, near
  • Built the temple of Govindadeva at


Buildings in Jahangir Mughal Empire :
  • With Jahangir?s reign, the practice of putting up buildings in marble and decorating the walls with floral designs made of semi-precious stones started. This method of decoration was known as Pietra
  • Nurjahan built the tomb of Itmad-ud-Daula at
  • Jahangir built Moti Masjid at Lahore and his own mausoleum at Shahdara (Lahore).


Shahjahan Architecture :
  • Built Taj Mahal, Moti Masjid at Agra, Jama Masjid and Red Fort at Delhi, Shalimar Bagh at Lahore and city of
  • Also built Mussaman Burz at Agra (where he spent his last years in captivity), Sheesh Mahal,
  • He got the peacock throne built by Bebadal Khan on which Amir Khusrau?s couplet ? ?If there is a paradise on earth, it is here?, inscribed on


Aurangzeb Architecture :
  • Built Moti Masjid at Delhi and Badshahi Mosque at
  • Built Bibi ka Makbara in


Paintings of Mughal Period :: List of Mughal Emperors Humayun :

He invited 2 Persian artists, Mir Sayyid Ali and Abdus Samad, who became his court ?painters.


Paintings of Akbar Mughal Empire :
  • Organised painting in imperial karkhanas and also introduced European
  • Abdus Samad, Farrukh Beg, Khusro Kuli, Jamshed, Basawan, Daswanth, etc were the prominent
  • Daswanth painted the Razm Namah (Persian Mahabharat).


Mughal Empire Jahangir Paintings :


  • Painting reached its zenith under
  • Special progress was made in portrait painting and painting of animals. Bishan Das was a master? of ?portraits while Ustad Mansur specialised in animal
  • Use of ?Halo? or Divine Lights started under

?History of Mughal literature
List of Mughal Emperors

  • Khan Abdur Rahman translated Babur?s Tuzuk ? I ? Baburi from Turki to Persian during Akbar?s
  • Abul Fazal composed Ain ? I ? Akbari and
  • Abdul Qadir Badauni, who was in Akbar?s court, wrote : Kitab ? ul ? Ahadish, Tarikh ? i ? Alfi and Muntakhab ? ul? Tawarikh.
  • Khwaja Nizamuddin Ahmad Harawi wrote Tabaqat ? i ?
  • Jahangir composed his memoir, Tuzuk ? I ? Jahangiri (in Persian language), and patronized the valuable dictionary, Farhang ? I ?
  • During Jahangir?s reign Hamid wrote Padshah Namahand Khafi Khan wrote Muntakhab ? i ?
  • Dara was a great scholar. He translated Upanishads and Bhagvadgita. He also wrote Majm ? ul ?
  • Mirza Md. Qazim wrote
  • Ishwar Das Nagar wrote Fatuhat ? i ? Alamgiri


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Important Educational Institutional Bodies in India

Important Educational Institutional Bodies in India
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Higher Education in India is one of the largest and oldest systems of higher education in the world

Universities in India

The University system has a number of different types of institutions and there are wide variations in their missions, goals and objectives.

A. Central University

While other universities in the country are established by the State Governments, a central University in India is formed by the Government of India, by an Act Of Parliament


University of Allahabad?is the?Oldest
among all central Universities in India

i. The Government of India is responsible for arranging, allocating and distributing financial resources required by the University Grants Commission (UGC) for the establishment of Central Universities in India
ii. Currently, there are 46 universities in India by April 2015
iii. Delhi & Uttar Pradesh has highest number of central universities with 5 each.

B. State?University
The State Governments establish and plan for the colleges and universities in the states.
i. Currently, there are 332 state universities in India by April 2015
ii. Uttar Pradesh has highest number of state universities with 25, followed by Gujarat with 24, Karnataka with 23, Tamil Nadu with 22, West Bengal & Rajasthan with 21 each, and Andhra Pradesh & Maharashtra with 20 state universities each.

C. Deemed?University

UGC is entrusted with another responsibility of giving ?Deemed? status to any educational institution by which:
i. UGC can grant fund to them;
ii. UGC can make such institution enable to design their own syllabus and course work;
iii. Such institutions also get the authority to set its own guidelines regarding admission and fees.
iv. ?Currently, there are 128?deemed universities in India by April 2015 with Tamil Nadu has maximum number of deemed university in country with 28, followed by Maharashtra with 21 and Karnataka with 14

D. Private University

In the past few years, the private universities have mushroomed with total 216 Private Universities in country. Rajasthan has the maximum private universities with 40, followed by Uttar Pradesh with 23 and Gujarat with 20

Formal & Distance Education?in India



? Indra Gandhi National Open University was established in 1985
? Purpose :- To democratize higher education & to provide cost-effective, quality education to large sections of Indian population
? Is a world leader in distance education
? Serves the educational aspirations of over 2.6 million students in India and 36 other countries through the 21 School of Studies and a network of 61 regional centers, around 3000 learner support centers and around 60 overseas centers.
? Functions
i. Offers various academic programmes that lead to Certificates, Diplomas, and Degrees
ii. In it?s capacity as an Apex Body,?it co-ordinates and monitors distance education system throughout the country

Professional/Technical?& General Education?in India

1. UGC


? The University Grants Commission has the unique distinction of being the only grant-giving agency in the country
? Responsibilities of UGC
i. Providing funds;
ii. Co-ordination, determination and maintenance of standards in institutions of higher education



? The National Council of Educational Research and Training was established in September 1961 in New Delhi as an autonomous body.
? Objectives
i. Qualitative improvement in the education
ii. Provide qualitative text books
iii. Improvement in the quality of teachers education


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