1. Guru Nanak Dev Ji
Sikhism belongs to a religious sect founded by Guru Nanak (1469 ? 1539). His main teachings were the faith in one true Lord, the worship of the Name and the necessity of a Guru in the worship of the name.
2.?Guru Angad?Dev Ji
After his death, Guru Angad (1539 ? 52) became his successor. He invented the Gurumukhi script for the Punjabi Language.
3. Guru Amar Das?Ji
Guru Amardas (1552 ? 74) was the next guru. ?He reformed the institution of hangar and gave more importance to it. He divided his spiritual empire into 22 parts called Manjis. Each Manjis was put under the charge of a Sikh.
4. Guru Ram?Das?Ji
IV guru, Guru Ramdas (1575 ? 81) had very cordial relations with with Akbar.?He laid the foundation of Amritsar city. He dug a tank (sarovar) and it exists at Amritsar. In the midst of the tank, the Harmandir Sahib (Temple of God) was constructed.
5. Guru Arjan Dev?Ji
V guru, Guru Arjun Dev (1581 ? 1606) compiled Adi Granth. He also completed the construction of Amritsar and founded other cities like Taran Taran and Kartarpur. He was executed by Jahangir for helping his rebellious son, Khusro.
6. Guru Har Govind?Ji
VI guru, Guru Har Govind Rai?(1606 ? 44) defeated a Mughal Army at Sangrama. He transformed the Sikhs into?military community, established?Akal Takhtat the Golden Temple and held court there to conduct secular matters. He himself took up the tide of Sachcha Padshah. He also fortified Amritsar.
7. Guru Har Rai (1644 ? 61) and Guru Har Krishan (1661 ? 64) were the VII and VIII gurus respectively.
?Guru Har Rai ? ? ?Guru Har Krishan ? ? ? ? ?
9. Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji
IX guru, Guru Tegh Bahadur (1664 ? 75) revolted against Aurangzeb but was executed by him. He was beheaded at Delhi?s Chandni Chowk in November 1675. The Sis Ganj Gurudwara marks the site of his martyrdom.
Gurudwara Sis Ganj Sahib
10. Guru Gobind Singh Ji
X and last guru, Guru Gobind Singh (1675 ? 1708) (born in Patna) organised Sikhs as a community of warriors and called them as Khalsa (Baisakhi day, 1699). He summoned a big assembly of Sikhs at Anantpur and selected 5 persons who came to be known as Panj Pyare. They took the water of immortality.
? ? ? ? ?
What is Panj Pyare?
The Panj Pyare are beloved by Sikhs because the tenth guru of the Sikhs Gobind Rai called to a crowd of thousands who had assembled on the day of Baisakhi, asking for volunteers who would give him their heads.
Five men came forward:
- Bhai Daya Singh
- Bhai Dharam Singh
- Bhai Himmat Singh
- Bhai Muhkam Singh
- Bhai Sahib Singh
Dress Code of Sikhs
The Sikhs were given a distinct dress and they were required to keep on their person five things beginning with K, viz., Kesh, Kripan, Kachha, Kanga and Kara. He compiled a supplementary granth called ?Daswen Padshah ka ?Granth?.
After the death of Aurangzeb, Guru Gobind Singh had cordial relations with his son. Bahadur Shah I. He even agreed to accompany the new king to Deccan. But the Guru was stabbed to death by a Pathan in 1708. At his death, he declared that henceforth, the Guru shall be in the Khalsa and the Khalsa in the Guru. He declared that from now on Granth Sahib should be treated as the Guru.
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