The History Marathas in India

  • Rose to prominence under Shivaji.?
  • He was born to Shahji Bhonsle and Jijabai in 1627 at fortress of Shivner in Shahji was a military officer in the state of Bijapur and he owned the territory of Poona as a jagir.
  • He was highly impressed by his mother, Dadaji Kondadeo (his guardian), Guru Ramdas Samarth and Tuka Ram, both Bhakti
  • From 1656, he started capturing many forts from the local officer?s of Bijapur
  • Ali Adil Shah, sultan of Bijapur sent Afzal Khan to teach Shivaji a lesson in But Shivaji killed him in a meeting with his tiger claws.
  • Ultimately, in 1662, the Sultan of Bijapur made peace with Shivaji and acknowledged him as an independent ruler of his conquered?territories.
  • Aurangzeb got worried by Shivaji?s extensive He sent Shaista Khan (Viceroy of Mughal Deccan) to kill him. Here again, in a daring manner, Shivaji attacked Shaista Khan?s camp in night, injuring him.
  • Then Aurangzeb sent Raja Jai Singh (of Amber) who forced him to sign the Treaty of Purandar in Under the treaty, Shivaji had to surrender 23 of his major forts out of the total 35 forts. Shivaji also agreed to help the Mughals in their attack of Bijapur.
  • Shivaji visited Agra with his son Sambhaji in There he was put on a house arrest. But he escaped from there, concealing in a basket of sweets.
  • He very soon conquered all the forts which he had surrendered to the
  • He defeated a Mughal force in the Battle of Salher?in 1672.
  • He was crowned in? 1674? at? Raigarh? and? assumed? the? title? of? ? He? became? the? sovereign ruler of Maharashtra.
  • Unfortunately, Shivaji didn?t live long.?He died in 1680 at the age of 53.

Marathas after Shivaji?

  • After Shivaji, his son Sambhaji (1680 ? 89) succeeded throne (although a lot many supported his step-brother, Rajaram). He was a man of loose character and spent all his time in merry ? making.
  • When Aurangzeb was busy in his campaigns against Bijapur and Golconda, he and his followers did not take full advantage of the opportunity. When Sambhaji gave shelter to Aurangzeb?s rebel son, Akbar, he was executed and his infant son, Shivaji II, better known as Shahu, was taken captive by Aurangzeb.
  • Sambhaji was succeeded by Rajaram in Rajaram also lacked the qualities of his father. He was hardly ten?when his father died and he was kept a prisoner by his brother Sambhaji. The result was that he failed to get the education which was necessary for his status.
  • However, he was fortunate in having brilliant advisors and helpers. Initially, he was successful against the But he was killed in 1700 when Aurangzeb himself conducted an expedition against him. After Raja Ram?s death, his widow Tarabai put her infant son, Shivaji III on the throne.
  • After the death of Aurangzeb in 1707, the Mughals tried to divide the Marathas. Shahu was released by?Aurangzeb?s successor, Bahadur Shah I. now he claimed the government. His release led to the Maratha civil war between Shahu and Tarabai. In the civil war Shahu emerged victorious (Battle of Khed) with the help of Balaji Vishwanath, the founder of the line of Peshwas. After the battle, Tarabai retired to Kolhapur with her ?son.
  • In the reign of Shahu, the Peshwa or Prime Minister, Balaji Vishwanath, virtually became the ruler of the

From now onwards began the rule of the Peshwas who had their seat of power at Poona. (Shahu?s capital was Satara).

  • In all, there were seven Peshwas, namely :
  1. Balaji Vishwanath (1713 ? 20)
  2. Balaji Baji Rao I (1720 ? 40)
  3. Balaji Baji Rao (1740 ? 61) Madho Rao (1761 ? 72)
  4. Narayan Rao (1772 ? 73)
  5. Madho Rao Narayan (1773 ? 95) Baji Rao II (1795 ? 1818)
  • Of these seven Peshwas, the ablest was Baji Rao I and the weakest and most incompetent was Baji Rao
  • Baji Rao II signed the Treaty of Bassein in 1802 with the British, which gave the British effective control of not only the Maratha region but also of the Deccan and western
  • Under Peshwas, Maratha kingdom transformed into an empire based on the principle of confederacy, in which prominent Maratha chiefs were assigned a territory as their ?sphere of influence?, which they were supposed to conquer on their own and which they can administer
  • Consequently, several Maratha families became prominent in different parts of India :
  1. Gaekwad in Baroda
  2. Bhonsle at Nagpur
  3. Holkar at Indore
  4. Scindia at Gwalior
  5. Peshwa at Poona

Maratha Administration?

  • Besides the land revenue, Chauth or 1/4th land revenue was the main
  • Sardeshmukhi was an additional levy of 10% on those lands of Maharashtra over which the Marathas claimed hereditary rights, but which formed part of the Mughal
  • Shivaji was helped by 8 ministers or Ashta
  1. Peshwa or Mukhya Pradhan (Prime Minister).
  2. Majumdar or Amatya (Finance Minister).
  3. Mantri or Waqianavis (Personal safety of king).
  4. Sachiva or Surunavis (In charge of royal secretariat).
  5. Samant or Dabir (Foreign Minister) a Senapati (Commander in Chief).
  6. Pandit Rao (Chief Religious Advisor).
  7. Nyayadhish (Administration of justice).
  • With the exception of Nyayadhish and Pandit Rao, all other ministers were required to command armies and lead
  • Later, Rajaram created a new post of Pratinidhi, thus taking the total ministers to

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SSC/Delhi Police/SI/ASI/Sarkari Naukri Know the Ten Gurus of Sikhs

1. Guru Nanak Dev Ji

Sikhism belongs to a religious sect founded by Guru Nanak (1469 ? 1539). His main teachings were the faith in one true Lord, the worship of the Name and the necessity of a Guru in the worship of the name.

2.?Guru Angad?Dev Ji

After his death, Guru Angad (1539 ? 52) became his successor. He invented the Gurumukhi script for the Punjabi Language.

3. Guru Amar Das?Ji

Guru Amardas (1552 ? 74) was the next guru. ?He reformed the institution of hangar and gave more importance to it. He divided his spiritual empire into 22 parts called Manjis. Each Manjis was put under the charge of a Sikh.


4. Guru Ram?Das?Ji

IV guru, Guru Ramdas (1575 ? 81) had very cordial relations with with Akbar.?He laid the foundation of Amritsar city. He dug a tank (sarovar) and it exists at Amritsar. In the midst of the tank, the Harmandir Sahib (Temple of God) was constructed.

5. Guru Arjan Dev?Ji

V guru, Guru Arjun Dev (1581 ? 1606) compiled Adi Granth. He also completed the construction of Amritsar and founded other cities like Taran Taran and Kartarpur. He was executed by Jahangir for helping his rebellious son, Khusro.

6. Guru Har Govind?Ji

VI guru, Guru Har Govind Rai?(1606 ? 44) defeated a Mughal Army at Sangrama. He transformed the Sikhs into?military community, established?Akal Takhtat the Golden Temple and held court there to conduct secular matters. He himself took up the tide of Sachcha Padshah. He also fortified Amritsar.

7. Guru Har Rai (1644 ? 61) and Guru Har Krishan (1661 ? 64) were the VII and VIII gurus respectively.

?Guru Har Rai ? ? ?Guru Har Krishan ? ? ? ? ?

9. Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji

IX guru, Guru Tegh Bahadur (1664 ? 75) revolted against Aurangzeb but was executed by him. He was beheaded at Delhi?s Chandni Chowk in November 1675. The Sis Ganj Gurudwara marks the site of his martyrdom.


Gurudwara Sis Ganj Sahib

10. Guru Gobind Singh Ji

X and last guru, Guru Gobind Singh (1675 ? 1708) (born in Patna) organised Sikhs as a community of warriors and called them as Khalsa (Baisakhi day, 1699). He summoned a big assembly of Sikhs at Anantpur and selected 5 persons who came to be known as Panj Pyare. They took the water of immortality.

? ? ? ? ?

What is Panj Pyare?

The Panj Pyare are beloved by Sikhs because the tenth guru of the Sikhs Gobind Rai called to a crowd of thousands who had assembled on the day of Baisakhi, asking for volunteers who would give him their heads.

Five men came forward:

  • Bhai Daya Singh
  • Bhai Dharam Singh
  • Bhai Himmat Singh
  • Bhai Muhkam Singh
  • Bhai Sahib Singh

Dress Code of Sikhs

The Sikhs were given a distinct dress and they were required to keep on their person five things beginning with K, viz., Kesh, Kripan, Kachha, Kanga and Kara. He compiled a supplementary granth called ?Daswen Padshah ka ?Granth?.

Remember

After the death of Aurangzeb, Guru Gobind Singh had cordial relations with his son. Bahadur Shah I. He even agreed to accompany the new king to Deccan. But the Guru was stabbed to death by a Pathan in 1708. At his death, he declared that henceforth, the Guru shall be in the Khalsa and the Khalsa in the Guru. He declared that from now on Granth Sahib should be treated as the Guru.

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Important Educational Institutional Bodies in India

Important Educational Institutional Bodies in India
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Higher Education in India is one of the largest and oldest systems of higher education in the world

Universities in India

The University system has a number of different types of institutions and there are wide variations in their missions, goals and objectives.

A. Central University

While other universities in the country are established by the State Governments, a central University in India is formed by the Government of India, by an Act Of Parliament

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University of Allahabad?is the?Oldest
among all central Universities in India

i. The Government of India is responsible for arranging, allocating and distributing financial resources required by the University Grants Commission (UGC) for the establishment of Central Universities in India
ii. Currently, there are 46 universities in India by April 2015
iii. Delhi & Uttar Pradesh has highest number of central universities with 5 each.

B. State?University
The State Governments establish and plan for the colleges and universities in the states.
i. Currently, there are 332 state universities in India by April 2015
ii. Uttar Pradesh has highest number of state universities with 25, followed by Gujarat with 24, Karnataka with 23, Tamil Nadu with 22, West Bengal & Rajasthan with 21 each, and Andhra Pradesh & Maharashtra with 20 state universities each.

C. Deemed?University

UGC is entrusted with another responsibility of giving ?Deemed? status to any educational institution by which:
i. UGC can grant fund to them;
ii. UGC can make such institution enable to design their own syllabus and course work;
iii. Such institutions also get the authority to set its own guidelines regarding admission and fees.
iv. ?Currently, there are 128?deemed universities in India by April 2015 with Tamil Nadu has maximum number of deemed university in country with 28, followed by Maharashtra with 21 and Karnataka with 14

D. Private University

In the past few years, the private universities have mushroomed with total 216 Private Universities in country. Rajasthan has the maximum private universities with 40, followed by Uttar Pradesh with 23 and Gujarat with 20

Formal & Distance Education?in India

IGNOU

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? Indra Gandhi National Open University was established in 1985
? Purpose :- To democratize higher education & to provide cost-effective, quality education to large sections of Indian population
? Is a world leader in distance education
? Serves the educational aspirations of over 2.6 million students in India and 36 other countries through the 21 School of Studies and a network of 61 regional centers, around 3000 learner support centers and around 60 overseas centers.
? Functions
i. Offers various academic programmes that lead to Certificates, Diplomas, and Degrees
ii. In it?s capacity as an Apex Body,?it co-ordinates and monitors distance education system throughout the country

Professional/Technical?& General Education?in India

1. UGC

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? The University Grants Commission has the unique distinction of being the only grant-giving agency in the country
? Responsibilities of UGC
i. Providing funds;
ii. Co-ordination, determination and maintenance of standards in institutions of higher education

2. NCERT

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? The National Council of Educational Research and Training was established in September 1961 in New Delhi as an autonomous body.
? Objectives
i. Qualitative improvement in the education
ii. Provide qualitative text books
iii. Improvement in the quality of teachers education

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Competition Gurukul?is a premier institute for CTET Coaching.?You can visit our center?to register your slot. You will be guided by our?counsellor from Monday to Saturday?at scheduled timing of?9 AM to 8 PM.

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A-1/17, Janakpuri, Main Najafgarh Road,
Opp Metro Pillar 636, New Delhi ? 110058