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The Mughal Empire of India
- The Mughal era is the historic period of the Mughal Empire in India, it ran from the early sixteenth century, to a point in the early eighteenth century when the Mughal Emperors power had
- It ended in several generations of conflicts between rival
- During the Mughal period, art and architecture flourished and many beautiful monuments were The rulers were skillful warriors and admirers of art as well.
- The Mughal Empire lasted for more than three The Mughal Empire was one of the largest centralized states in premodern history and was the precursor to the British Indian Empire.
The Mughal Emperors?
? Babur (1526 ? 1530)
? Humayun (1530 ? 40 & 1555 ? 1556)
? Akbar (1556 ? 1605)
? Jahangir (1605 ? 1627)
? Shahjahan (1628 ? 1658)
Babar Emperor (1526 ? 1530)
- Was a descended of Timur on his father?s side and Chengiz Khan on his mother?s. His family belonged to the Chaghtai section of the Turkish race and were commonly known as Mughals.
- Originally ruled over Ferghana (Afghanistan). He became the Sultan at the early age of 12, when his father Sultan Umar Shaikh Mirza died.
- He was invited to attack India by Daulat Khan Lodhi (Subedar of Punjab), Alam Khan (uncle of Ibrahim Lodhi) and Rana Sanga. Defeated Ibrahim Lodi in the First Battle of Panipat in 1526.
- In this Babar used the Rumi (Ottoman) device of lashing a large number of carts to form a defending wall with breastwork in between to rest guns (Tulghama system of warfare). His artillery was led by Ustad Ali?and Mustafa.
- Defeated Sangram Singh (Rana Sanga) of Mewar in the Battle of Khanua in This weakened the Rajput confederacy and strengthened Babar?s position. Babar took the tide of ?Ghazi? after that.
- Defeated another Rajput ruler, Medini Rai (of Chanderi) in the Battle of Chanderi in
- Defeated the Afghan chiefs under Mahmud Lodi brother of Ibrahim Lodi) in the Battle of Ghagra in
- His victories led to rapid popularization of gunpowder and artillery in
- Died in 1530. Buried at Aram Bagh in Agra; later his body was taken to Aram Bagh,
- His memoir, the Tazuk ? i ? Baburi in Turki language is a classic of world It shows his humane outlook and sensitivity to the beauty of nature. Also wrote ?Masnavf.
Note : After the Kushans, Babur was the first to bring Kabul and Kandahar into the Indian Empire, which provided stability since it was the staging post of invasions of India.
This helped in promoting trade since these towns were the starting points of caravans meant for China in the east and Mediterranean in the west.
Humayun (1530 ? 40 and 1555 ? 56)
- He was born to Mahim Begam and Babur. The throne inherited by Humayun was? not a bed of roses.
- Babar had practically got no time to consolidate his position and Before he could put the whole country on a stable basis, he was gone.
- He did a blunder by dividing his empire among his three brothers ? Kamran, Hindal and?Askari.
- Built Dinpanah at Delhi as his second?capital.
- Defeated the Afghan forces at Daurah in?1532.
The Afghan Interlude
Sher Shah Suri History(1540 ? 1545)?
- Real name was Given the title Sher Khan by Babar Khan Lohani (Governor of Bihar) who appointed him Vakil (deputy).
- Became the master of Delhi after the exit of
- Crushed the Rajput forces of Marwar at Samel in
- Died in 1545 while campaigning against Kalinjar
Shershah?s Administration :
- For administrative convenience, Shershah divided his whole empire into 47 divisions called sarkars, and sarkars into smaller In the field of central administration, Shershah followed the Sultanate pattern. There were?? four main central departments, viz, Diwan ? i ? wizarat, Diwan ? i ? arz, Diwan ? i ? insha and Diwan ?? i ?? rasalat.
- His Land Revenue System is noteworthy as he classified his land under 3 heads ? good, middle and bad, and?claimed 1 / 3rd of the produce. Land was measured by using the Sikandari ? gaz? (32? points). ?Todarmal contributed greatly in the development of revenue policy of Shershah. Akbar also adopted the same revenue policy, albeit with some amendments.
- Shershah personally supervised the recruitment of the soldiers and paid them directly, He revived Alauddin?s system of branding the horses (daag) and keeping a descriptive roll of soldiers (chehra).
- Shershah introduced a regular postal service. He also attempted to fix standard weights and
- Introduced the silver ?Rupaya? and the copper ?Dam? and abolished all old and mixed metal? ?He promoted the cause of trade and commerce by reducing the number of the customs duty collection points to just two :
- Goods produced in Bengal or imported from outside had to pay customs duty at Sikrigali (at the border of Bengal and Bihar).
- For the goods coming from West and Central Asia at the?at the Indus.
- Shershah improved communication by building The roads built by Shershah are called ?the arteries of the empire?. Sarais were built on roads. He restored the old imperial road called Grand Trunk road, from the Indus River to Sonargaor, in Bengal.
- Built his tomb at Sasaram in Bihar.
- Built a new city on the bank of Yamuna River (present day Purana Qila).
- Malik Mohammad Jaisi composed Padmavat (in Hindi) during his
- Abbas Khan Sarwani was his historian, who wrote Tarikh ? i ?
- Sher Shah Suri gradually gained power during his
- He was attacked by Sher Shah at Chausa (Battle of Chausa) in 1539, but Here Humayun was saved by Nizam, a water carrier (saqqa).
- But in the Battle of Kannauj (also called Battle of Bilgram) in 1540, he was defeated by Sher Shah and?had to flee.
- Passed nearly 15 years (1540 ? 1555) in?exile.
- First fled to Sind, which was under Shah Hussain Arghuna. In 1545, he went to the Persian emperor?s
- Had the chance to return in Sher Shah, the victor of Kannauj, died in 1545. He was succeeded by his son Islam Shah, who ruled up to 1553. He was succeeded by Muhammad Adil Shah.
- He was very fond of pleasures and left the affairs of his government in the hands of Hemu, his His authority was challenged by Ibrahim Shah and Sikandar Shah. There were a large number of? bloody battles among the various rivals. The net result of all this was that the Suri Empire was broken up.
- Bairam Khan, his most faithful officer, helped him in this.
- Died in 1556, due to a fall from his library building stairs (Sher Mandal, Delhi) seven months after he captured It is said about him that ?Humayun tumbled through life and he tumbled out of it?.
- Gulbadan Begum, his half ? sister, wrote Humayun ? nama.
History of Akbar (1556 ? 1605)
- Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar was the son of Humayun and Hamida Banu He was born at Amarkot in 1542.
- Bairam Khan coronated him at Kalanaur when he was 14 years
- Bairam Khan represented him in the Second Battle of Panipat in 1556 against Hemu. Hemu, the PM of Muhammad Shah Adil of Bengal, was defeated. Hemu is considered the last Hindu king of Delhi.
- Between 1556 ? 1560, Akbar ruled under Bairam Khan?s (Bairam Khan was as sassinated at Patan, Gujarat, on his way to Mecca by one of his old Afghani enemies).
- Conquered Malwa in 1561 defeating Baz He was later made the Mansabdar to honour his skill as a musician.
- Then defeated Garh ? Katanga (ruled by Rani Durgawati) followed by Chittor and
- Akbar followed a policy of reconciliation with the Some of the Rajput princes entered into matrimonial alliances with him. In 1562, he married the eldest daughter of Raja Bharmal of Jaipur. In 1570, he married princesses from Bikaner and Jaisalmer. In 1584, Prince Salim was married to the daughter of Raja Bhagwan Das. All these activities paved the way for friendship between Rajputs and Mughals (except Mewar).
- Won Gujarat in It was in order to commemorate his victory of Gujarat that Akbar got the Buland Darwaza constructed at Fatehpur Sikri.
- Fought Battle of Haldighati with Mewar forces on 18 Jun, Mughals were represented by Raja Maan Singh and Rajputs by Rana Pratap Singh. Rajputs were defeated.
- Raja Maan Singh conquered Bihar, Bengal and Orissa for
- In 1586, he conquered Kashmir and in 1593, he conquered His last conquest was at the fort of Asirgarh in Deccan.
- At his death in 1605, his empire included Kashmir, Sind, Kandhar and extended as far as the Godavary in the
Maharana Pratap :
A Rajput ruler of Mewar, he belonged to the Sisodia clan of Suryavanshi Rajputs. He was a son of Udai Singh II. In 1568, during the reign of Udai Singh II, Mewar was conquered by the Akbar.
Battle of Haldighati was fought on Jun 18, 1576, in which Maharana Pratap was defeated by Akbar?s army, led by Raja Maan Singh. Maharana had to flee the field on his trusted horse Chetak.
Thereafter, Pratap had to retreat into the Aravallis from where he continued his struggle through the tactics of guerilla warfare. Using the hills as his base, Pratap harassed the large and therefore awkward mughal forces in their encampments.
He ensured that the mughal occupying force in Mewar never knew peace. Rana Pratap died of injuries sustained in a hunting accident.
Important aspects of Akbar?s Rule :
- Ralph Fitch (1585) was the first Englishman to visit Akbar?s
- Abolished jaziyah in 1564 and the tax on pilgrims. The use of beef was also forbidden
- Regularly visited the shrine of Sheikh Muinuddin Chishti at
- Believed in Sulh ? i ? Kul or peace?to all.
- Built Ibadatkhana (Hall of prayers) at Fatehpur Sikri. He used to conduct religious discussions there with : Purshottam Das (Hindu), Maharaji Rana (Parsi), Harivijaya Suri (Jain), Monserate and Aquaviva (Christian).
- In 1579, Akbar issued the ?Decree of Infallibility.
- Formulated an order called Din ? i ? Ilahi or Tauhid ? i ? Ilahi in 1581. Birbal, Abul Fazl and Faizi joined the order.
- His Land Revenue System was known as Todar Mai Bandobast or Zabti Three salient features of Zabti system were ? measurement of land, classification of land and fixation of rates. Todar Mai and Muzaffar Khan Turbati were the important revenue officers.
- Also introduced the Mansabdary System to organise the nobility as well as the Mansabdar meant holder ofa rank. There were two ranks: Zat and Sawar. Zat fixed the status and standing in the administrative hierarchy while sawar fixed the number of troopers held by the Mansabdar. It wasn?t a hereditary ?system.
Akbar?s Navratna History :
- Abu?l ? Fazl, the Wazir of Akbar and author of the Akbamama an account of Akbar?s He also led the Mughal imperial army in its wars in the Deccan. He was assassinated in a plot contrived by Akbar?s son, Salim.
- Faizi was historian Abul Fazl?s brother in Akbar?s He was a poet composing in Persian and an all ? round genius. Akbar highly recognized the genius in him and appointed him teacher for his son and gave place to him among his decorative ?Nau Ratnas?. His famous work Lilabati is on mathematics.
- Tansen, believed to be one of the greatest musician of all times, was born in a Hindu family in Gwalior. He servedas the court musician to King Ramachandra of Mewar and later to Akbar.
- Tansen accepted Islam at the hands of the great Sufi mystic and saint ? Shaykh Muhammad Ghaus of Gwalior. It was believed that Tansen made miracles such as bringing rain and fire through singing the ragas Megh Malhar and Deepak,
- Raja Birbal, alias Mahesh Das, was a courtier in the administration of Akbar. Birbal was referred to as a court witas a result of the fact that he frequently had witty and humorous exchanges with ?Akbar.
- He was a poet and author whose wit and wisdom led the Emperor Akbar to invite him to be a part of the royal court and to bestow upon him a new name ? Birbal. Akbar also conferred on him the title of ?Raja?.
- Raja Todar Mai was Akbar?s finance minister, who overhauled the revenue system in the He introduced standard weights and measurements, revenue districts and officers.
- His systematic approach to revenue collection became a model for the future Mughals as well as the Hehad developed his expertise while working under Sher Shah. In 1582, Akbar bestowed on the raja the title Diwan? i ? Ashraf.
- Raja Man Singh was the Kacchwaha raja of He was a mansabdar and a trusted general of Akbar. He was the grandson of Akbar?s father ? in ? law, Bharmal and the adopted son of Raja Bhagwan Das.
- He assisted Akbar in many battles including the well ? known | battle of Haldighati, among He also led campaigns in Orissa and Bengal.
- Abdul Rahim Khan ? e ? Khana was a poet and the son of Akbar?s trusted caretaker, Bairam After Bairam Khan was murdered,
Bairan Khan?s wife became the second wife of Akbar, which made Abdul Rahim Khan ? e ? Khan his stepson. He had a high place I among Akbar?s Navratnas. Although a Muslim by birth, he was a devotee of Lord Krishna.
- Faqir Aziao Din was one of Akbar?s chief
- Mullah Do Piaza was among the Mughal emperor Akbar?s chief Akbar regarded his advice in high esteem.
History of Jahangir (1605 ? 1627)?
- Akbar?s eldest son Salim assumed the title of Nuruddin Muhammad Jahangir and ascended the throne.
- He mostly lived in Lahore which he adorned with gardens and
- But soon, his eldest son Khusro revolted,?which was suppressed.
- The fifth Sikh guru, Guru Arjun Dev, had helped Khusro. So he was also executed after 5 days of torture.
- Rana Amar Singh (son of Maharana Pratap) of Mewar submitted before Jahangir in Rana?s son Karan Singh was made a mansabdar in the Mughal court.
- Faced a formidable opponent in Malik Amber in his expedition to Ahmednagar.
- His greatest failure was the loss of Kandahar?to Persia in 1622.
- The most important event in Jahangir?s life was his marriage to Mehr ? un ? Nisa, the widow of Sher Afghani in The title of Nur Jahan was conferred on her.
- She had great influence on Jahangir?s life, as she was given the status of Padshah Begum, coins were struck in her name and all royal farmans?beared her
- She got high positions for her father (Itmad ? ud ? daulah), and her brother (Asaf Khan). She married Asaf?s daughter, Mumtaz Mahal to Khurram (later, Shahjahan). This cemented the alliance? between? Nurjahan, her father, Asaf Khan ?and Khurram.
- This alliance practically ruled the empire for 10 Problem arose when Nur Jahan married her daughter by Sher Afghani to Jahangir?s youngest son, Shahryar. Now Nur Jahan supported him for the heir ? apparent.
- All these events hampered the military events for the recovery of Kandhar.
- Had a chain of justice outside his palace in Agra (called Zanzir ? i ? Adil). He also laid a number of gardens, such as the Shalimar and Nishat gardens in?Kashmir.
- Captain Hawkins (1608 ? 11) and Sir Thomas Roe (1615 ? 1619) visited his Due to the efforts of Sir Thomas Roe English factories were established at Surat and some other places.
- Pietra Valle, famous Italian traveler came during his?reign.
- Tobacco growing started during his reign. It was brought by the Portuguese.
History of Shahjahan (1628 ? 1658)
- Able general and administrator.
- Had to face revolts in Bundelkhand (Jujjhar Singh Bundela of Orchcha) and in the Deccan (Khan ? i ? Jahan Lodi) in the initial
- Shahjahan?s policy of annexing the Deccan was quite Ahmednagar was annexed while Bijapur and Golconda accepted his overlordship.
- Shahjahan also expelled the Portuguese from Hughli, as they were abusing their trading privileges.
- In 1639, Shahjahan secured Kandahar and immediately fortified it. But Persia wrested Kandahar? from ?the Mughals in 1649. Shahjahan sent three expeditions to recover Kandahar, but all
- Made his son, Aurangzeb, the Viceroy of Deccan in 1636. Aurangzeb first tenure was till
- Aurangzeb?s second term as Viceroy in Deccan began in 1653 and continued till Aurangzeb built an effective Revenue System there (Murshid Kuli Khan was his dewan there).
- Last 8 years of his life were very painful, as there was a brutal war of succession among his four sons ? Dara, Shuja, Aurangzeb and Murad. Dara was his favourite but Aurangzeb was the
- Ultimately, Aurangzeb took control and he was made the prisoner in the Agra Fort, being looked after by his daughter, Jahan Ara, till his death in
- His reign is considered the ?Golden Age of the Mughal Empire?.
- 2 Frenchmen, Bernier and Tavernier, and an Italian adventurer Manucci, visited during his
History of Taj Mahal :
- Taj Mahal, the eternal love monument is located in Agra. Shah Jahan commissioned its construction as a mausoleum lor his favourite wife, Arjumancl Bano Begum, better known as Mumtaz Mahal, in
- It was constructed in 22 years (1631 ? 1653) by a workforce of 22,000. It is generally considered the finest example of Mughal
- The Taj Mahal was not designed by a single The project demanded talent from many quarters. Ustad Isa and Isa Muhammad Effendi are edited with a key role in the architectural design of the complex.
- The main dome was designed by Ismail Qazim Khan cast the solid gold finial that crowned the Turkish masters dome.
- Chiranjilal was chosen as the chief sculptor and mosaicist. Amanat Khan was the chief?calligrapher.
- Muhammad Hanif was the supervisor of Mir Abdul Karim and Mukkarimat Khan handled finances and the management of daily production.
- The Taj rises on a high red sandstone base topped by a huge white marble terrace on which rests the famous dome flanked by four tapering minarets. Within the dome lies the jewel ? inlaid cenotaph of the?of the queen.
- The only asymmetrical object in the Taj is the casket of the emperor which was built beside the queen?s as an It is often described as one of the seven wonders of the modern world.
Aurangzeb Alamgir (1658 ? 1707)
- At the time of Shahjahan?s illness, Dara was in Delhi and the other brothers were in different places ? Shuja in Bengal, Murad in Gujarat and Aurangzeb in
- Aurangzeb first defeated the Imperial army in the Battle of Dharmat and then defeated a force led by Dara in the Battle of
- Thereafter, he entered Agraand crowned himself with the title of ?Alamgir? (conqueror of the world).
- Under him, the Mughal Empire reached its greatest extent, and the largest single state ever known in India from the dawn of history to the rise of British Power was
- His reign can be broadly divided into two 25 year periods: first in the affairs of India when the Maratha power under Shivaji emerged, and second marked by his preoccupations about the affairs of Deccan.
- In his rule, various rebellions took place ? Jat peasantry at Mathura, Satnami peasantry in Punjab and Bundelas in
- He caused serious rift in the Mughal-Rajput alliance by his policy of annexation of Marwar in 1639 after the death of Raja Jaswant
- In 1675, he ordered the arrest and execution of ninth Sikh guru, Guru Tegh Bahadur
- In 1679, he reimposed Also, Nauraj, singing in the court, and the practice of ?jharokha-darshan? were banned. Also forbade inscription of Kalima (the Muslim credo) on the coins.
- When he was conducting the campaign against Marwar, his son Akbar rebelled in
- The Mughal conquests reached the territorial climax during his reign, as Bijapur (1686) and Golconda (1687) were annexed to the Mughal The Mughal Empire stretched from Kashmir in die north to Jinji in the south, from the Hindukush in the west to Chittagong in the east.
- Patronized the greatest digest of Muslim law in India, Fatwa-i-Alamgiri.
- Mutasib (regulator of moral conduct) was
- He was called a ?Darvesh? or a ?Zinda Pir?.
- He also forbade?Sati.
Fall of Mughal Empire
- The empire lost power after Aurangzeb?s rule. His successors were weak and incapable
Bahadur Shah (1707 ? 1712) : Assumed the title of Shah Alam I was also known as Shah ? i ? Bekhabar. He made peace with Guru Gobind Singh and Chhatrasal. He granted Sardeshmukhi to Marathas and also released Shahu.
- Jahandar Shah (1712 ? 13) : First puppet Mughal emperor. He abolished
- Farrukhsiyar (1713 ? 19) : Ascended the throne with the help of Sayyid He executed Banda Bahadur. Farrukhsiyar himself was murdered by the Sayyid brothers with Maratha help in 1719.
- Mohammad Shah (1719 ? 48) : Nadir Shah (of Iran) defeated him in the Battle of Karnal (1739) and took away
Peacock throne and Kohinoor diamond. During his tenure, Chin Kilich Khan (Nizam ? ul ? Mulk) founded Hyderabad, Murshid Quli Khan founded Bengal and Saddat Khan laid down the foundation of Awadh out of the realms of Mughal Empire. He was a pleasure ? loving king and was nick ? named ?Rangeela.
- Ahmad Shah (1748 ? 54) : During his period, Safdarjung, the nawab of Awadh, was the Wazir or Prime Minister
of the empire.
??????? Alamgir II (1754 ? 59)
- Shah Alam II (1759 ? 1806) : Shah Alam II joined hands with Mir Qasim of Bengal and Shuja ? ud ? Daula of Awadh in the Battle of Buxar against the British in 1764. They were
- Ambitious nobles became direct contenders of The Sayyid brothers (also known as King Makers) put three princes on the throne. Ultimately these brothers were murdered by a conspiracy between Mohammad Shah and Chin Kilich Khan (Nizam ? ul ? Muik).
- One of the generals of Nadir Shah, Ahmed Shah Abdali, invaded India repeatedly between 1748 ? He defeated the Marathas in the Third Battle of Panipat in 1761. In this battle, Marathas were led by Sadashiv Rao Bhau, while the Peshwa at that time was Balaji Bajirao.
- Akbar II (1806 ? 37) : He gave Rammohan the title ?Raja?. He sent Raja Ram Mohan Roy to London to seek a raise in his
- Bahadur Shah II (1837 ? 57) : He was confined by the British to the Red During the revolt of 1857, he was proclaimed the Emperor by the rebels. He was deported to Rangoon after that.
Kohinoor Diamond History :
- Kohinoor is a 105 carat (21.6 gm) diamond that was once the largest known diamond in the world it originated in India, belonged to various Indian and Persian rulers who fought bitterly over it at various points in history, and seized as a spoil of war, it became part of the Crown Jewels of England when Queen Victoria was proclaimed empress of India.
- It is reputed to bring misfortune or death to any male who wears or owns Conversely, it is reputed to bring good luck to female owners.
- Most sources agree that the Kohinoor was mined at Rayalaseema in Andhra It was first owned by Kakatiya dynasty, but the Kakatiya kingdom under Pratapa Rudra was ravaged in 1323 by Muhammad bin Tughluq.
- From then onwards, the stone passed through the hands of successive rulers of the Delhi sultanate, finally
passing to Babur in 1526.
- Shah Jahan had the stone placed into his ornate Peacock Throne. It was taken away by Nadir? Shah? in ?1739 along with the Peacock After the assassination of Nadir Shah in 1747 it came into the hands of Ahmed Shah Abdali of Afghanistan. It was passed down to his descendants until it was taken by Maharaja Ranjit Singh
ofPunjab in 1813.
- From him, the gem passed on to the Ranjit Singhs successor, Duleep Singh gave the gem to Queen Victoria in 1851. In 1852, under the personal supervision of Victoria?s consort, Prince Albert, the diamond was cut from 1861 / 16 carats (37.21 gm) to its current 105.602 carats (21.61 gm), to increase its brilliance.
- The stone is presently used as the centre piece of the crowns of the Queens consort of the United Queen Alexandra was the first to use the stone, followed by Queen Mary.
- In 1936, the stone was set into the crown of the new Queen Elizabeth (later known as the Queen Mother), wife of King George VI. In 2002, the crown rested atop her coffin as she by in
Mughal Administration System
- The entire kingdom was divided into suba or pranta, suba into sarkar, sarkar into pargana and the pargana into
- Babar and Humayun had a Prime Minister known as The office of Vakil, was, however, discontinued after Bairam Khan.
- Wazir was the Prime
- Dewan was the head of the revenue
- Mir Bakshi : Military
- Khan ? i ? Saman : Royal
- Qazi ? ul ? quzaf : Judicial Department. The qazis were helped by the
- Sadr ? us ? Sadr : Charitable and religious
- Mustaufi : Auditor ?
- Amil : Judicial officer in civil and judicial
- Quanungo : Head
- Lambardar : Village
- Patwari : Village
- During Akbar?s reign the empire was divided into 15 subas. The number reached 21 during Aurangzeb?s
- The territory of the empire was divided into khalisa (crown lands), jagirs (land granted to nobles) and inam (land granted to religious and learned men).
Mughal Buildings in India
Babar : Built two mosques: one at Kabulibagh in Panipat and the other in Sambhal in ?Rohilkhand.
Buildings in Humayun Empire
- Laid the foundation of the city Din Panah at
- Built Jamali Mosque and the Mosque of Isa Khan at
- Humayun?s tomb is called the prototype of Taj Mahal. It was built by his widow Haji
Akbar Buildings :
- Built Agra fort (in red sandstone).
- He also built Fatehpur Sikri (city of victory) near In Fatehpur Sikri are the Panch Mahal, Diwan-I-Khas, Diwan-I-Aam, Jodhabai?s palace and Sheikh Salim Chishti?s tomb. Buland Darwaza (53 m high) is located here, commemorating the emperor?s conquest of Gujarat.
- Built his own tomb at Sikandra, near
- Built the temple of Govindadeva at
Buildings in Jahangir Mughal Empire :
- With Jahangir?s reign, the practice of putting up buildings in marble and decorating the walls with floral designs made of semi-precious stones started. This method of decoration was known as Pietra
- Nurjahan built the tomb of Itmad-ud-Daula at
- Jahangir built Moti Masjid at Lahore and his own mausoleum at Shahdara (Lahore).
Shahjahan Architecture :
- Built Taj Mahal, Moti Masjid at Agra, Jama Masjid and Red Fort at Delhi, Shalimar Bagh at Lahore and city of
- Also built Mussaman Burz at Agra (where he spent his last years in captivity), Sheesh Mahal,
- He got the peacock throne built by Bebadal Khan on which Amir Khusrau?s couplet ? ?If there is a paradise on earth, it is here?, inscribed on
Aurangzeb Architecture :
- Built Moti Masjid at Delhi and Badshahi Mosque at
- Built Bibi ka Makbara in
Paintings of Mughal Period :: List of Mughal Emperors Humayun :
He invited 2 Persian artists, Mir Sayyid Ali and Abdus Samad, who became his court ?painters.
Paintings of Akbar Mughal Empire :
- Organised painting in imperial karkhanas and also introduced European
- Abdus Samad, Farrukh Beg, Khusro Kuli, Jamshed, Basawan, Daswanth, etc were the prominent
- Daswanth painted the Razm Namah (Persian Mahabharat).
Mughal Empire Jahangir Paintings :
- Painting reached its zenith under
- Special progress was made in portrait painting and painting of animals. Bishan Das was a master? of ?portraits while Ustad Mansur specialised in animal
- Use of ?Halo? or Divine Lights started under
?History of Mughal literature
List of Mughal Emperors
- Khan Abdur Rahman translated Babur?s Tuzuk ? I ? Baburi from Turki to Persian during Akbar?s
- Abul Fazal composed Ain ? I ? Akbari and
- Abdul Qadir Badauni, who was in Akbar?s court, wrote : Kitab ? ul ? Ahadish, Tarikh ? i ? Alfi and Muntakhab ? ul? Tawarikh.
- Khwaja Nizamuddin Ahmad Harawi wrote Tabaqat ? i ?
- Jahangir composed his memoir, Tuzuk ? I ? Jahangiri (in Persian language), and patronized the valuable dictionary, Farhang ? I ?
- During Jahangir?s reign Hamid wrote Padshah Namahand Khafi Khan wrote Muntakhab ? i ?
- Dara was a great scholar. He translated Upanishads and Bhagvadgita. He also wrote Majm ? ul ?
- Mirza Md. Qazim wrote
- Ishwar Das Nagar wrote Fatuhat ? i ? Alamgiri
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