Congratulations To Delhi Police Students For Qualifying The Physical Round


Competition Gurukul would like to congratulate our students of Delhi Police batch for qualifying in their Physical Round of Delhi Police Physical Test-2017. The Physical Test of Delhi Police is a test of physical as well as mental strength of the candidates which require shear hard work, commitment and constant dedication which our students have paid and the result is in front of the world. Here, we would also like to congratulate the parents of each qualified students who took trouble to provide them quality coaching. Moreover, we would like to thank our teachers who are always there to motivate the students and guide them to achieve this feet.



Competition Gurukul’s Wizards of 2016

Competition Gurukul, on behalf of its entire fraternity of Baluja Education Society, wants to congratulate all the selected students of Competition Gurukul in various exams conducted from the year 2015 to mid – 2016. All the students have shown tremendous effort not only to crack these exams but many of them have proven that one can create history by rock solid determination, shear hard work and meticulous smart strategies. ?We can rightly conclude that, “they came, they saw and?they conquered” what they wanted.

competition result vinal final

Competition Gurukul is the sister institute of Baluja Institute, Janak Puri. Even though Baluja Institute is engaged in providing technical education & training for past 18 years, Competition Gurukul has created its own niche in the field of Competitive Exam preparation and professional coaching in a very short time span. The main credit for this goes to Ms. G.K Baluja (Chairman & MD of Baluja Education Society) and the working staff of Competition Gurukul – both teaching and non teaching whose dedication, professionalism and dynamic work culture have helped the students to get what they required during smart preparation and quality coaching to crack various competitive and entrance exams – SSC, Bank, CTET, CLAT, LEET, NDA, HM, Polytechnic, B.Ed and B.El.Ed.

Words from Our Chairman & MD?

“Hello students and their respected parents. Competition Gurukul is a top class institute with world class infrastructure and extraordinary competitive environment. We have one of the best faculty in coaching field ?with years of experience and smart teaching methodologies. At Competition Gurukul, we cater for the quality of coaching and smart preparation which is a requisite to crack any competitive as well as entrance exam.”

image1Ms. G.K. Baluja

“Our classroom coaching program is well designed and tested that helps students not only to crack a exam for which they enroll in our institute but also lead them to achieve what they desire to achieve. Our this year’s result at ?various exams is a proof of it. Our both teaching and non-teaching staff works stupendously and consistently with total devotion to provide all beneficiaries of quality coaching to students. I feel proud to lead such a dedicated staff and the organization. I welcome all students of various exams to come and join our institute to get immediate benefit and desired result from the coaching”

For More Information Contact

Janak Puri??Branch

Competition Gurukul
A-1/17, Janakpuri, Main Najafgarh Road,
Opp Metro Pillar 636, New Delhi ? 110058

Uttam Nagar Branch

A-38, 39, 40, Opposite Metro Pillar no: 641,
Uttam Nagar, Near Uttam Nagar East Metro Station, New Delhi

Delhi Police Recruitment Notification 2016

Delhi Police Recruitment 2016 for?the vacant posts of 4699 Female and Male Constables. Job hunters are ?to be notified by the Delhi Police. The interested aspirants for Delhi Police Recruitment Exam must have completed?their 12th Class / Intermediate or its equivalent qualification from any recognized Institution / Board with minimum aggregate of marks. Other important details are given below:

Location:?New Delhi

Pay Scale:?Contenders shortlisted for Delhi Police Recruitment 2016 will receive consoldated pay band as per government norms. Refer official advertisement to get data about post wise salary information.

Delhi Police Constable?Notification 2016?Eligibility Criteria

Selection Procedure:

  • Written Exam
  • Physical Efficiency Test
  • Measurement Test

Age Limit:?

  • Minimum age should be 18 years and Maximum is 21 years
  • SC, ST, PWD?and Women category candidates will get age relaxation according to government norms.

Qualification:?The interested candidate?must have finished their 12th Class / Intermediate or its equivalent qualification from any recognized Institution / Board with minimum aggregate of marks.

How to Apply Delhi Police Constable Jobs 2016

  • Visit the official page ?of Delhi Police
  • Goto Recruitment section and read the particular notification thoroughly
  • Eligible applicants can apply for?Online application form
  • Fill necessary details in the form
  • Attach your recent pass port size photograph, signature
  • Upload copies of candidates educational qualification and experience
  • Then Pay the application fee according to your category
  • Verify the info you provided to avoid errors
  • Hit on submit button for complete application procedure
  • Submit your applications on or before closing date


The History Marathas in India

  • Rose to prominence under Shivaji.?
  • He was born to Shahji Bhonsle and Jijabai in 1627 at fortress of Shivner in Shahji was a military officer in the state of Bijapur and he owned the territory of Poona as a jagir.
  • He was highly impressed by his mother, Dadaji Kondadeo (his guardian), Guru Ramdas Samarth and Tuka Ram, both Bhakti
  • From 1656, he started capturing many forts from the local officer?s of Bijapur
  • Ali Adil Shah, sultan of Bijapur sent Afzal Khan to teach Shivaji a lesson in But Shivaji killed him in a meeting with his tiger claws.
  • Ultimately, in 1662, the Sultan of Bijapur made peace with Shivaji and acknowledged him as an independent ruler of his conquered?territories.
  • Aurangzeb got worried by Shivaji?s extensive He sent Shaista Khan (Viceroy of Mughal Deccan) to kill him. Here again, in a daring manner, Shivaji attacked Shaista Khan?s camp in night, injuring him.
  • Then Aurangzeb sent Raja Jai Singh (of Amber) who forced him to sign the Treaty of Purandar in Under the treaty, Shivaji had to surrender 23 of his major forts out of the total 35 forts. Shivaji also agreed to help the Mughals in their attack of Bijapur.
  • Shivaji visited Agra with his son Sambhaji in There he was put on a house arrest. But he escaped from there, concealing in a basket of sweets.
  • He very soon conquered all the forts which he had surrendered to the
  • He defeated a Mughal force in the Battle of Salher?in 1672.
  • He was crowned in? 1674? at? Raigarh? and? assumed? the? title? of? ? He? became? the? sovereign ruler of Maharashtra.
  • Unfortunately, Shivaji didn?t live long.?He died in 1680 at the age of 53.

Marathas after Shivaji?

  • After Shivaji, his son Sambhaji (1680 ? 89) succeeded throne (although a lot many supported his step-brother, Rajaram). He was a man of loose character and spent all his time in merry ? making.
  • When Aurangzeb was busy in his campaigns against Bijapur and Golconda, he and his followers did not take full advantage of the opportunity. When Sambhaji gave shelter to Aurangzeb?s rebel son, Akbar, he was executed and his infant son, Shivaji II, better known as Shahu, was taken captive by Aurangzeb.
  • Sambhaji was succeeded by Rajaram in Rajaram also lacked the qualities of his father. He was hardly ten?when his father died and he was kept a prisoner by his brother Sambhaji. The result was that he failed to get the education which was necessary for his status.
  • However, he was fortunate in having brilliant advisors and helpers. Initially, he was successful against the But he was killed in 1700 when Aurangzeb himself conducted an expedition against him. After Raja Ram?s death, his widow Tarabai put her infant son, Shivaji III on the throne.
  • After the death of Aurangzeb in 1707, the Mughals tried to divide the Marathas. Shahu was released by?Aurangzeb?s successor, Bahadur Shah I. now he claimed the government. His release led to the Maratha civil war between Shahu and Tarabai. In the civil war Shahu emerged victorious (Battle of Khed) with the help of Balaji Vishwanath, the founder of the line of Peshwas. After the battle, Tarabai retired to Kolhapur with her ?son.
  • In the reign of Shahu, the Peshwa or Prime Minister, Balaji Vishwanath, virtually became the ruler of the

From now onwards began the rule of the Peshwas who had their seat of power at Poona. (Shahu?s capital was Satara).

  • In all, there were seven Peshwas, namely :
  1. Balaji Vishwanath (1713 ? 20)
  2. Balaji Baji Rao I (1720 ? 40)
  3. Balaji Baji Rao (1740 ? 61) Madho Rao (1761 ? 72)
  4. Narayan Rao (1772 ? 73)
  5. Madho Rao Narayan (1773 ? 95) Baji Rao II (1795 ? 1818)
  • Of these seven Peshwas, the ablest was Baji Rao I and the weakest and most incompetent was Baji Rao
  • Baji Rao II signed the Treaty of Bassein in 1802 with the British, which gave the British effective control of not only the Maratha region but also of the Deccan and western
  • Under Peshwas, Maratha kingdom transformed into an empire based on the principle of confederacy, in which prominent Maratha chiefs were assigned a territory as their ?sphere of influence?, which they were supposed to conquer on their own and which they can administer
  • Consequently, several Maratha families became prominent in different parts of India :
  1. Gaekwad in Baroda
  2. Bhonsle at Nagpur
  3. Holkar at Indore
  4. Scindia at Gwalior
  5. Peshwa at Poona

Maratha Administration?

  • Besides the land revenue, Chauth or 1/4th land revenue was the main
  • Sardeshmukhi was an additional levy of 10% on those lands of Maharashtra over which the Marathas claimed hereditary rights, but which formed part of the Mughal
  • Shivaji was helped by 8 ministers or Ashta
  1. Peshwa or Mukhya Pradhan (Prime Minister).
  2. Majumdar or Amatya (Finance Minister).
  3. Mantri or Waqianavis (Personal safety of king).
  4. Sachiva or Surunavis (In charge of royal secretariat).
  5. Samant or Dabir (Foreign Minister) a Senapati (Commander in Chief).
  6. Pandit Rao (Chief Religious Advisor).
  7. Nyayadhish (Administration of justice).
  • With the exception of Nyayadhish and Pandit Rao, all other ministers were required to command armies and lead
  • Later, Rajaram created a new post of Pratinidhi, thus taking the total ministers to


Competition Gurukul is a premier institute for Delhi Police/SI/ASI?Exam Coaching. You can visit our center to register your slot for fresh batches. You will be guided by our counsellor from Monday to Saturday at scheduled timing of 9 AM to 8 PM.

For More Information Contact

Competition Gurukul
A-1/17, Janakpuri, Main Najafgarh Road,
Opp Metro Pillar 636, New Delhi ? 110058

SSC/Delhi Police/SI/ASI/Sarkari Naukri Know the Ten Gurus of Sikhs

1. Guru Nanak Dev Ji

Sikhism belongs to a religious sect founded by Guru Nanak (1469 ? 1539). His main teachings were the faith in one true Lord, the worship of the Name and the necessity of a Guru in the worship of the name.

2.?Guru Angad?Dev Ji

After his death, Guru Angad (1539 ? 52) became his successor. He invented the Gurumukhi script for the Punjabi Language.

3. Guru Amar Das?Ji

Guru Amardas (1552 ? 74) was the next guru. ?He reformed the institution of hangar and gave more importance to it. He divided his spiritual empire into 22 parts called Manjis. Each Manjis was put under the charge of a Sikh.

4. Guru Ram?Das?Ji

IV guru, Guru Ramdas (1575 ? 81) had very cordial relations with with Akbar.?He laid the foundation of Amritsar city. He dug a tank (sarovar) and it exists at Amritsar. In the midst of the tank, the Harmandir Sahib (Temple of God) was constructed.

5. Guru Arjan Dev?Ji

V guru, Guru Arjun Dev (1581 ? 1606) compiled Adi Granth. He also completed the construction of Amritsar and founded other cities like Taran Taran and Kartarpur. He was executed by Jahangir for helping his rebellious son, Khusro.

6. Guru Har Govind?Ji

VI guru, Guru Har Govind Rai?(1606 ? 44) defeated a Mughal Army at Sangrama. He transformed the Sikhs into?military community, established?Akal Takhtat the Golden Temple and held court there to conduct secular matters. He himself took up the tide of Sachcha Padshah. He also fortified Amritsar.

7. Guru Har Rai (1644 ? 61) and Guru Har Krishan (1661 ? 64) were the VII and VIII gurus respectively.

?Guru Har Rai ? ? ?Guru Har Krishan ? ? ? ? ?

9. Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji

IX guru, Guru Tegh Bahadur (1664 ? 75) revolted against Aurangzeb but was executed by him. He was beheaded at Delhi?s Chandni Chowk in November 1675. The Sis Ganj Gurudwara marks the site of his martyrdom.

Gurudwara Sis Ganj Sahib

10. Guru Gobind Singh Ji

X and last guru, Guru Gobind Singh (1675 ? 1708) (born in Patna) organised Sikhs as a community of warriors and called them as Khalsa (Baisakhi day, 1699). He summoned a big assembly of Sikhs at Anantpur and selected 5 persons who came to be known as Panj Pyare. They took the water of immortality.

? ? ? ? ?

What is Panj Pyare?

The Panj Pyare are beloved by Sikhs because the tenth guru of the Sikhs Gobind Rai called to a crowd of thousands who had assembled on the day of Baisakhi, asking for volunteers who would give him their heads.

Five men came forward:

  • Bhai Daya Singh
  • Bhai Dharam Singh
  • Bhai Himmat Singh
  • Bhai Muhkam Singh
  • Bhai Sahib Singh

Dress Code of Sikhs

The Sikhs were given a distinct dress and they were required to keep on their person five things beginning with K, viz., Kesh, Kripan, Kachha, Kanga and Kara. He compiled a supplementary granth called ?Daswen Padshah ka ?Granth?.


After the death of Aurangzeb, Guru Gobind Singh had cordial relations with his son. Bahadur Shah I. He even agreed to accompany the new king to Deccan. But the Guru was stabbed to death by a Pathan in 1708. At his death, he declared that henceforth, the Guru shall be in the Khalsa and the Khalsa in the Guru. He declared that from now on Granth Sahib should be treated as the Guru.


Competition Gurukul is a premier institute for Delhi Police/SI/ASI?Exam Coaching. You can visit our center to register your slot for fresh batches. You will be guided by our counsellor from Monday to Saturday at scheduled timing of 9 AM to 8 PM.

For More Information Contact

Competition Gurukul
A-1/17, Janakpuri, Main Najafgarh Road,
Opp Metro Pillar 636, New Delhi ? 110058

SSC/Delhi Police/SI/ASI/Sarkari Naukri History Chapter on Mughal Empire In India

Competition Gurukul presents the latest & revised notes for SSC/Delhi Police/SI/ASI/Sarkari Naukri Recruitment Exam. All aspirants are advised to go through the notes thoroughly.

The Mughal Empire of India

  • The Mughal era is the historic period of the Mughal Empire in India, it ran from the early sixteenth century, to a point in the early eighteenth century when the Mughal Emperors power had
  • It ended in several generations of conflicts between rival
  • During the Mughal period, art and architecture flourished and many beautiful monuments were The rulers were skillful warriors and admirers of art as well.
  • The Mughal Empire lasted for more than three The Mughal Empire was one of the largest centralized states in premodern history and was the precursor to the British Indian Empire.

The Mughal Emperors?

? Babur (1526 ? 1530)

? Humayun (1530 ? 40 & 1555 ? 1556)

? Akbar (1556 ? 1605)

? Jahangir (1605 ? 1627)

? Shahjahan (1628 ? 1658)

?Aurangzeb Alamgir

Babar Emperor (1526 ? 1530)

  • Was a descended of Timur on his father?s side and Chengiz Khan on his mother?s. His family belonged to the Chaghtai section of the Turkish race and were commonly known as Mughals.
  • Originally ruled over Ferghana (Afghanistan). He became the Sultan at the early age of 12, when his father Sultan Umar Shaikh Mirza died.
  • He was invited to attack India by Daulat Khan Lodhi (Subedar of Punjab), Alam Khan (uncle of Ibrahim Lodhi) and Rana Sanga. Defeated Ibrahim Lodi in the First Battle of Panipat in 1526.

  • In this Babar used the Rumi (Ottoman) device of lashing a large number of carts to form a defending wall with breastwork in between to rest guns (Tulghama system of warfare). His artillery was led by Ustad Ali?and Mustafa.
  • Defeated Sangram Singh (Rana Sanga) of Mewar in the Battle of Khanua in This weakened the Rajput confederacy and strengthened Babar?s position. Babar took the tide of ?Ghazi? after that.
  • Defeated another Rajput ruler, Medini Rai (of Chanderi) in the Battle of Chanderi in
  • Defeated the Afghan chiefs under Mahmud Lodi brother of Ibrahim Lodi) in the Battle of Ghagra in
  • His victories led to rapid popularization of gunpowder and artillery in
  • Died in 1530. Buried at Aram Bagh in Agra; later his body was taken to Aram Bagh,
  • His memoir, the Tazuk ? i ? Baburi in Turki language is a classic of world It shows his humane outlook and sensitivity to the beauty of nature. Also wrote ?Masnavf.

Note : After the Kushans, Babur was the first to bring Kabul and Kandahar into the Indian Empire, which provided stability since it was the staging post of invasions of India.

This helped in promoting trade since these towns were the starting points of caravans meant for China in the east and Mediterranean in the west.

Humayun (1530 ? 40 and 1555 ? 56)

  • He was born to Mahim Begam and Babur. The throne inherited by Humayun was? not a bed of roses.
  • Babar had practically got no time to consolidate his position and Before he could put the whole country on a stable basis, he was gone.
  • He did a blunder by dividing his empire among his three brothers ? Kamran, Hindal and?Askari.
  • Built Dinpanah at Delhi as his second?capital.
  • Defeated the Afghan forces at Daurah in?1532.
The Afghan Interlude

Sher Shah Suri History(1540 ? 1545)?

  • Real name was Given the title Sher Khan by Babar Khan Lohani (Governor of Bihar) who appointed him Vakil (deputy).
  • Became the master of Delhi after the exit of
  • Crushed the Rajput forces of Marwar at Samel in
  • Died in 1545 while campaigning against Kalinjar

Shershah?s Administration :

  • For administrative convenience, Shershah divided his whole empire into 47 divisions called sarkars, and sarkars into smaller In the field of central administration, Shershah followed the Sultanate pattern. There were?? four main central departments, viz, Diwan ? i ? wizarat, Diwan ? i ? arz, Diwan ? i ? insha and Diwan ?? i ?? rasalat.
  • His Land Revenue System is noteworthy as he classified his land under 3 heads ? good, middle and bad, and?claimed 1 / 3rd of the produce. Land was measured by using the Sikandari ? gaz? (32? points). ?Todarmal contributed greatly in the development of revenue policy of Shershah. Akbar also adopted the same revenue policy, albeit with some amendments.
  • Shershah personally supervised the recruitment of the soldiers and paid them directly, He revived Alauddin?s system of branding the horses (daag) and keeping a descriptive roll of soldiers (chehra).
  • Shershah introduced a regular postal service. He also attempted to fix standard weights and
  • Introduced the silver ?Rupaya? and the copper ?Dam? and abolished all old and mixed metal? ?He promoted the cause of trade and commerce by reducing the number of the customs duty collection points to just two :
  1. Goods produced in Bengal or imported from outside had to pay customs duty at Sikrigali (at the border of Bengal and Bihar).
  1. For the goods coming from West and Central Asia at the?at the Indus.
  • Shershah improved communication by building The roads built by Shershah are called ?the arteries of the empire?. Sarais were built on roads. He restored the old imperial road called Grand Trunk road, from the Indus River to Sonargaor, in Bengal.
  • Built his tomb at Sasaram in Bihar.
  • Built a new city on the bank of Yamuna River (present day Purana Qila).
  • Malik Mohammad Jaisi composed Padmavat (in Hindi) during his
  • Abbas Khan Sarwani was his historian, who wrote Tarikh ? i ?
  • Sher Shah Suri gradually gained power during his
  • He was attacked by Sher Shah at Chausa (Battle of Chausa) in 1539, but Here Humayun was saved by Nizam, a water carrier (saqqa).

  • But in the Battle of Kannauj (also called Battle of Bilgram) in 1540, he was defeated by Sher Shah and?had to flee.
  • Passed nearly 15 years (1540 ? 1555) in?exile.
  • First fled to Sind, which was under Shah Hussain Arghuna. In 1545, he went to the Persian emperor?s
  • Had the chance to return in Sher Shah, the victor of Kannauj, died in 1545. He was succeeded by his son Islam Shah, who ruled up to 1553. He was succeeded by Muhammad Adil Shah.
  • He was very fond of pleasures and left the affairs of his government in the hands of Hemu, his His authority was challenged by Ibrahim Shah and Sikandar Shah. There were a large number of? bloody battles among the various rivals. The net result of all this was that the Suri Empire was broken up.
  • Bairam Khan, his most faithful officer, helped him in this.
  • Died in 1556, due to a fall from his library building stairs (Sher Mandal, Delhi) seven months after he captured It is said about him that ?Humayun tumbled through life and he tumbled out of it?.
  • Gulbadan Begum, his half ? sister, wrote Humayun ? nama.

History of Akbar (1556 ? 1605)

  • Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar was the son of Humayun and Hamida Banu He was born at Amarkot in 1542.
  • Bairam Khan coronated him at Kalanaur when he was 14 years
  • Bairam Khan represented him in the Second Battle of Panipat in 1556 against Hemu. Hemu, the PM of Muhammad Shah Adil of Bengal, was defeated. Hemu is considered the last Hindu king of Delhi.

  • Between 1556 ? 1560, Akbar ruled under Bairam Khan?s (Bairam Khan was as sassinated at Patan, Gujarat, on his way to Mecca by one of his old Afghani enemies).
  • Conquered Malwa in 1561 defeating Baz He was later made the Mansabdar to honour his skill as a musician.
  • Then defeated Garh ? Katanga (ruled by Rani Durgawati) followed by Chittor and
  • Akbar followed a policy of reconciliation with the Some of the Rajput princes entered into matrimonial alliances with him. In 1562, he married the eldest daughter of Raja Bharmal of Jaipur. In 1570, he married princesses from Bikaner and Jaisalmer. In 1584, Prince Salim was married to the daughter of Raja Bhagwan Das. All these activities paved the way for friendship between Rajputs and Mughals (except Mewar).
  • Won Gujarat in It was in order to commemorate his victory of Gujarat that Akbar got the Buland Darwaza constructed at Fatehpur Sikri.

  • Fought Battle of Haldighati with Mewar forces on 18 Jun, Mughals were represented by Raja Maan Singh and Rajputs by Rana Pratap Singh. Rajputs were defeated.
  • Raja Maan Singh conquered Bihar, Bengal and Orissa for
  • In 1586, he conquered Kashmir and in 1593, he conquered His last conquest was at the fort of Asirgarh in Deccan.
  • At his death in 1605, his empire included Kashmir, Sind, Kandhar and extended as far as the Godavary in the
Maharana Pratap :

A Rajput ruler of Mewar, he belonged to the Sisodia clan of Suryavanshi Rajputs. He was a son of Udai Singh II. In 1568, during the reign of Udai Singh II, Mewar was conquered by the Akbar.

Battle of Haldighati was fought on Jun 18, 1576, in which Maharana Pratap was defeated by Akbar?s army, led by Raja Maan Singh. Maharana had to flee the field on his trusted horse Chetak.

Thereafter, Pratap had to retreat into the Aravallis from where he continued his struggle through the tactics of guerilla warfare. Using the hills as his base, Pratap harassed the large and therefore awkward mughal forces in their encampments.

He ensured that the mughal occupying force in Mewar never knew peace. Rana Pratap died of injuries sustained in a hunting accident.

Important aspects of Akbar?s Rule :

  • Ralph Fitch (1585) was the first Englishman to visit Akbar?s
  • Abolished jaziyah in 1564 and the tax on pilgrims. The use of beef was also forbidden
  • Regularly visited the shrine of Sheikh Muinuddin Chishti at
  • Believed in Sulh ? i ? Kul or peace?to all.

  • Built Ibadatkhana (Hall of prayers) at Fatehpur Sikri. He used to conduct religious discussions there with : Purshottam Das (Hindu), Maharaji Rana (Parsi), Harivijaya Suri (Jain), Monserate and Aquaviva (Christian).
  • In 1579, Akbar issued the ?Decree of Infallibility.
  • Formulated an order called Din ? i ? Ilahi or Tauhid ? i ? Ilahi in 1581. Birbal, Abul Fazl and Faizi joined the order.
  • His Land Revenue System was known as Todar Mai Bandobast or Zabti Three salient features of Zabti system were ? measurement of land, classification of land and fixation of rates. Todar Mai and Muzaffar Khan Turbati were the important revenue officers.
  • Also introduced the Mansabdary System to organise the nobility as well as the Mansabdar meant holder ofa rank. There were two ranks: Zat and Sawar. Zat fixed the status and standing in the administrative hierarchy while sawar fixed the number of troopers held by the Mansabdar. It wasn?t a hereditary ?system.
Akbar?s Navratna History :

  • Abu?l ? Fazl, the Wazir of Akbar and author of the Akbamama an account of Akbar?s He also led the Mughal imperial army in its wars in the Deccan. He was assassinated in a plot contrived by Akbar?s son, Salim.
  • Faizi was historian Abul Fazl?s brother in Akbar?s He was a poet composing in Persian and an all ? round genius. Akbar highly recognized the genius in him and appointed him teacher for his son and gave place to him among his decorative ?Nau Ratnas?. His famous work Lilabati is on mathematics.
  • Tansen, believed to be one of the greatest musician of all times, was born in a Hindu family in Gwalior. He servedas the court musician to King Ramachandra of Mewar and later to Akbar.
  • Tansen accepted Islam at the hands of the great Sufi mystic and saint ? Shaykh Muhammad Ghaus of Gwalior. It was believed that Tansen made miracles such as bringing rain and fire through singing the ragas Megh Malhar and Deepak,
  • Raja Birbal, alias Mahesh Das, was a courtier in the administration of Akbar. Birbal was referred to as a court witas a result of the fact that he frequently had witty and humorous exchanges with ?Akbar.
  • He was a poet and author whose wit and wisdom led the Emperor Akbar to invite him to be a part of the royal court and to bestow upon him a new name ? Birbal. Akbar also conferred on him the title of ?Raja?.
  • Raja Todar Mai was Akbar?s finance minister, who overhauled the revenue system in the He introduced standard weights and measurements, revenue districts and officers.

  • His systematic approach to revenue collection became a model for the future Mughals as well as the Hehad developed his expertise while working under Sher Shah. In 1582, Akbar bestowed on the raja the title Diwan? i ? Ashraf.
  • Raja Man Singh was the Kacchwaha raja of He was a mansabdar and a trusted general of Akbar. He was the grandson of Akbar?s father ? in ? law, Bharmal and the adopted son of Raja Bhagwan Das.

  • He assisted Akbar in many battles including the well ? known | battle of Haldighati, among He also led campaigns in Orissa and Bengal.
  • Abdul Rahim Khan ? e ? Khana was a poet and the son of Akbar?s trusted caretaker, Bairam After Bairam Khan was murdered,

    Bairan Khan?s wife became the second wife of Akbar, which made Abdul Rahim Khan ? e ? Khan his stepson. He had a high place I among Akbar?s Navratnas. Although a Muslim by birth, he was a devotee of Lord Krishna.
  • Faqir Aziao Din was one of Akbar?s chief

  • Mullah Do Piaza was among the Mughal emperor Akbar?s chief Akbar regarded his advice in high esteem.

History of Jahangir (1605 ? 1627)?

  • Akbar?s eldest son Salim assumed the title of Nuruddin Muhammad Jahangir and ascended the throne.

  • He mostly lived in Lahore which he adorned with gardens and
  • But soon, his eldest son Khusro revolted,?which was suppressed.
  • The fifth Sikh guru, Guru Arjun Dev, had helped Khusro. So he was also executed after 5 days of torture.

  • Rana Amar Singh (son of Maharana Pratap) of Mewar submitted before Jahangir in Rana?s son Karan Singh was made a mansabdar in the Mughal court.
  • Faced a formidable opponent in Malik Amber in his expedition to Ahmednagar.
  • His greatest failure was the loss of Kandahar?to Persia in 1622.
  • The most important event in Jahangir?s life was his marriage to Mehr ? un ? Nisa, the widow of Sher Afghani in The title of Nur Jahan was conferred on her.

  • She had great influence on Jahangir?s life, as she was given the status of Padshah Begum, coins were struck in her name and all royal farmans?beared her
  • She got high positions for her father (Itmad ? ud ? daulah), and her brother (Asaf Khan). She married Asaf?s daughter, Mumtaz Mahal to Khurram (later, Shahjahan). This cemented the alliance? between? Nurjahan, her father, Asaf Khan ?and Khurram.
  • This alliance practically ruled the empire for 10 Problem arose when Nur Jahan married her daughter by Sher Afghani to Jahangir?s youngest son, Shahryar. Now Nur Jahan supported him for the heir ? apparent.
  • All these events hampered the military events for the recovery of Kandhar.
  • Had a chain of justice outside his palace in Agra (called Zanzir ? i ? Adil). He also laid a number of gardens, such as the Shalimar and Nishat gardens in?Kashmir.

  • Captain Hawkins (1608 ? 11) and Sir Thomas Roe (1615 ? 1619) visited his Due to the efforts of Sir Thomas Roe English factories were established at Surat and some other places.
  • Pietra Valle, famous Italian traveler came during his?reign.
  • Tobacco growing started during his reign. It was brought by the Portuguese.

History of Shahjahan (1628 ? 1658)

  • Able general and administrator.
  • Had to face revolts in Bundelkhand (Jujjhar Singh Bundela of Orchcha) and in the Deccan (Khan ? i ? Jahan Lodi) in the initial
  • Shahjahan?s policy of annexing the Deccan was quite Ahmednagar was annexed while Bijapur and Golconda accepted his overlordship.
  • Shahjahan also expelled the Portuguese from Hughli, as they were abusing their trading privileges.
  • In 1639, Shahjahan secured Kandahar and immediately fortified it. But Persia wrested Kandahar? from ?the Mughals in 1649. Shahjahan sent three expeditions to recover Kandahar, but all
  • Made his son, Aurangzeb, the Viceroy of Deccan in 1636. Aurangzeb first tenure was till
  • Aurangzeb?s second term as Viceroy in Deccan began in 1653 and continued till Aurangzeb built an effective Revenue System there (Murshid Kuli Khan was his dewan there).
  • Last 8 years of his life were very painful, as there was a brutal war of succession among his four sons ? Dara, Shuja, Aurangzeb and Murad. Dara was his favourite but Aurangzeb was the
  • Ultimately, Aurangzeb took control and he was made the prisoner in the Agra Fort, being looked after by his daughter, Jahan Ara, till his death in
  • His reign is considered the ?Golden Age of the Mughal Empire?.
  • 2 Frenchmen, Bernier and Tavernier, and an Italian adventurer Manucci, visited during his
History of Taj Mahal :
  • Taj Mahal, the eternal love monument is located in Agra. Shah Jahan commissioned its construction as a mausoleum lor his favourite wife, Arjumancl Bano Begum, better known as Mumtaz Mahal, in

  • It was constructed in 22 years (1631 ? 1653) by a workforce of 22,000. It is generally considered the finest example of Mughal
  • The Taj Mahal was not designed by a single The project demanded talent from many quarters. Ustad Isa and Isa Muhammad Effendi are edited with a key role in the architectural design of the complex.
  • The main dome was designed by Ismail Qazim Khan cast the solid gold finial that crowned the Turkish masters dome.
  • Chiranjilal was chosen as the chief sculptor and mosaicist. Amanat Khan was the chief?calligrapher.
  • Muhammad Hanif was the supervisor of Mir Abdul Karim and Mukkarimat Khan handled finances and the management of daily production.
  • The Taj rises on a high red sandstone base topped by a huge white marble terrace on which rests the famous dome flanked by four tapering minarets. Within the dome lies the jewel ? inlaid cenotaph of the?of the queen.

  • The only asymmetrical object in the Taj is the casket of the emperor which was built beside the queen?s as an It is often described as one of the seven wonders of the modern world.

Aurangzeb Alamgir (1658 ? 1707)

  • At the time of Shahjahan?s illness, Dara was in Delhi and the other brothers were in different places ? Shuja in Bengal, Murad in Gujarat and Aurangzeb in
  • Aurangzeb first defeated the Imperial army in the Battle of Dharmat and then defeated a force led by Dara in the Battle of
  • Thereafter, he entered Agraand crowned himself with the title of ?Alamgir? (conqueror of the world).
  • Under him, the Mughal Empire reached its greatest extent, and the largest single state ever known in India from the dawn of history to the rise of British Power was
  • His reign can be broadly divided into two 25 year periods: first in the affairs of India when the Maratha power under Shivaji emerged, and second marked by his preoccupations about the affairs of Deccan.
  • In his rule, various rebellions took place ? Jat peasantry at Mathura, Satnami peasantry in Punjab and Bundelas in
  • He caused serious rift in the Mughal-Rajput alliance by his policy of annexation of Marwar in 1639 after the death of Raja Jaswant
  • In 1675, he ordered the arrest and execution of ninth Sikh guru, Guru Tegh Bahadur

  • In 1679, he reimposed Also, Nauraj, singing in the court, and the practice of ?jharokha-darshan? were banned. Also forbade inscription of Kalima (the Muslim credo) on the coins.
  • When he was conducting the campaign against Marwar, his son Akbar rebelled in
  • The Mughal conquests reached the territorial climax during his reign, as Bijapur (1686) and Golconda (1687) were annexed to the Mughal The Mughal Empire stretched from Kashmir in die north to Jinji in the south, from the Hindukush in the west to Chittagong in the east.
  • Patronized the greatest digest of Muslim law in India, Fatwa-i-Alamgiri.
  • Mutasib (regulator of moral conduct) was
  • He was called a ?Darvesh? or a ?Zinda Pir?.
  • He also forbade?Sati.

Fall of Mughal Empire
  • The empire lost power after Aurangzeb?s rule. His successors were weak and incapable

Bahadur Shah (1707 ? 1712) : Assumed the title of Shah Alam I was also known as Shah ? i ? Bekhabar. He made peace with Guru Gobind Singh and Chhatrasal. He granted Sardeshmukhi to Marathas and also released Shahu.

  • Jahandar Shah (1712 ? 13) : First puppet Mughal emperor. He abolished
  • Farrukhsiyar (1713 ? 19) : Ascended the throne with the help of Sayyid He executed Banda Bahadur. Farrukhsiyar himself was murdered by the Sayyid brothers with Maratha help in 1719.
  • Mohammad Shah (1719 ? 48) : Nadir Shah (of Iran) defeated him in the Battle of Karnal (1739) and took away

Peacock throne and Kohinoor diamond. During his tenure, Chin Kilich Khan (Nizam ? ul ? Mulk) founded Hyderabad, Murshid Quli Khan founded Bengal and Saddat Khan laid down the foundation of Awadh out of the realms of Mughal Empire. He was a pleasure ? loving king and was nick ? named ?Rangeela.

  • Ahmad Shah (1748 ? 54) : During his period, Safdarjung, the nawab of Awadh, was the Wazir or Prime Minister

of the empire.

??????? Alamgir II (1754 ? 59)
  • Shah Alam II (1759 ? 1806) : Shah Alam II joined hands with Mir Qasim of Bengal and Shuja ? ud ? Daula of Awadh in the Battle of Buxar against the British in 1764. They were
Note :
  • Ambitious nobles became direct contenders of The Sayyid brothers (also known as King Makers) put three princes on the throne. Ultimately these brothers were murdered by a conspiracy between Mohammad Shah and Chin Kilich Khan (Nizam ? ul ? Muik).
  • One of the generals of Nadir Shah, Ahmed Shah Abdali, invaded India repeatedly between 1748 ? He defeated the Marathas in the Third Battle of Panipat in 1761. In this battle, Marathas were led by Sadashiv Rao Bhau, while the Peshwa at that time was Balaji Bajirao.
  • Akbar II (1806 ? 37) : He gave Rammohan the title ?Raja?. He sent Raja Ram Mohan Roy to London to seek a raise in his
  • Bahadur Shah II (1837 ? 57) : He was confined by the British to the Red During the revolt of 1857, he was proclaimed the Emperor by the rebels. He was deported to Rangoon after that.


Kohinoor Diamond History :
  • Kohinoor is a 105 carat (21.6 gm) diamond that was once the largest known diamond in the world it originated in India, belonged to various Indian and Persian rulers who fought bitterly over it at various points in history, and seized as a spoil of war, it became part of the Crown Jewels of England when Queen Victoria was proclaimed empress of India.
  • It is reputed to bring misfortune or death to any male who wears or owns Conversely, it is reputed to bring good luck to female owners.
  • Most sources agree that the Kohinoor was mined at Rayalaseema in Andhra It was first owned by Kakatiya dynasty, but the Kakatiya kingdom under Pratapa Rudra was ravaged in 1323 by Muhammad bin Tughluq.
  • From then onwards, the stone passed through the hands of successive rulers of the Delhi sultanate, finally

passing to Babur in 1526.

  • Shah Jahan had the stone placed into his ornate Peacock Throne. It was taken away by Nadir? Shah? in ?1739 along with the Peacock After the assassination of Nadir Shah in 1747 it came into the hands of Ahmed Shah Abdali of Afghanistan. It was passed down to his descendants until it was taken by Maharaja Ranjit Singh

ofPunjab in 1813.

  • From him, the gem passed on to the Ranjit Singhs successor, Duleep Singh gave the gem to Queen Victoria in 1851. In 1852, under the personal supervision of Victoria?s consort, Prince Albert, the diamond was cut from 1861 / 16 carats (37.21 gm) to its current 105.602 carats (21.61 gm), to increase its brilliance.
  • The stone is presently used as the centre piece of the crowns of the Queens consort of the United Queen Alexandra was the first to use the stone, followed by Queen Mary.
  • In 1936, the stone was set into the crown of the new Queen Elizabeth (later known as the Queen Mother), wife of King George VI. In 2002, the crown rested atop her coffin as she by in


Mughal Administration System
  • The entire kingdom was divided into suba or pranta, suba into sarkar, sarkar into pargana and the pargana into
  • Babar and Humayun had a Prime Minister known as The office of Vakil, was, however, discontinued after Bairam Khan.
  • Wazir was the Prime
  • Dewan was the head of the revenue
  • Mir Bakshi : Military
  • Khan ? i ? Saman : Royal
  • Qazi ? ul ? quzaf : Judicial Department. The qazis were helped by the
  • Sadr ? us ? Sadr : Charitable and religious
  • Mustaufi : Auditor ?


  • Amil : Judicial officer in civil and judicial
  • Quanungo : Head
  • Lambardar : Village
  • Patwari : Village
  • During Akbar?s reign the empire was divided into 15 subas. The number reached 21 during Aurangzeb?s
  • The territory of the empire was divided into khalisa (crown lands), jagirs (land granted to nobles) and inam (land granted to religious and learned men).


Mughal Buildings in India

Babar : Built two mosques: one at Kabulibagh in Panipat and the other in Sambhal in ?Rohilkhand.

Buildings in Humayun Empire
  • Laid the foundation of the city Din Panah at
  • Built Jamali Mosque and the Mosque of Isa Khan at
  • Humayun?s tomb is called the prototype of Taj Mahal. It was built by his widow Haji
Akbar Buildings :
  • Built Agra fort (in red sandstone).
  • He also built Fatehpur Sikri (city of victory) near In Fatehpur Sikri are the Panch Mahal, Diwan-I-Khas, Diwan-I-Aam, Jodhabai?s palace and Sheikh Salim Chishti?s tomb. Buland Darwaza (53 m high) is located here, commemorating the emperor?s conquest of Gujarat.
  • Built his own tomb at Sikandra, near
  • Built the temple of Govindadeva at


Buildings in Jahangir Mughal Empire :
  • With Jahangir?s reign, the practice of putting up buildings in marble and decorating the walls with floral designs made of semi-precious stones started. This method of decoration was known as Pietra
  • Nurjahan built the tomb of Itmad-ud-Daula at
  • Jahangir built Moti Masjid at Lahore and his own mausoleum at Shahdara (Lahore).


Shahjahan Architecture :
  • Built Taj Mahal, Moti Masjid at Agra, Jama Masjid and Red Fort at Delhi, Shalimar Bagh at Lahore and city of
  • Also built Mussaman Burz at Agra (where he spent his last years in captivity), Sheesh Mahal,
  • He got the peacock throne built by Bebadal Khan on which Amir Khusrau?s couplet ? ?If there is a paradise on earth, it is here?, inscribed on


Aurangzeb Architecture :
  • Built Moti Masjid at Delhi and Badshahi Mosque at
  • Built Bibi ka Makbara in


Paintings of Mughal Period :: List of Mughal Emperors Humayun :

He invited 2 Persian artists, Mir Sayyid Ali and Abdus Samad, who became his court ?painters.


Paintings of Akbar Mughal Empire :
  • Organised painting in imperial karkhanas and also introduced European
  • Abdus Samad, Farrukh Beg, Khusro Kuli, Jamshed, Basawan, Daswanth, etc were the prominent
  • Daswanth painted the Razm Namah (Persian Mahabharat).


Mughal Empire Jahangir Paintings :


  • Painting reached its zenith under
  • Special progress was made in portrait painting and painting of animals. Bishan Das was a master? of ?portraits while Ustad Mansur specialised in animal
  • Use of ?Halo? or Divine Lights started under

?History of Mughal literature
List of Mughal Emperors

  • Khan Abdur Rahman translated Babur?s Tuzuk ? I ? Baburi from Turki to Persian during Akbar?s
  • Abul Fazal composed Ain ? I ? Akbari and
  • Abdul Qadir Badauni, who was in Akbar?s court, wrote : Kitab ? ul ? Ahadish, Tarikh ? i ? Alfi and Muntakhab ? ul? Tawarikh.
  • Khwaja Nizamuddin Ahmad Harawi wrote Tabaqat ? i ?
  • Jahangir composed his memoir, Tuzuk ? I ? Jahangiri (in Persian language), and patronized the valuable dictionary, Farhang ? I ?
  • During Jahangir?s reign Hamid wrote Padshah Namahand Khafi Khan wrote Muntakhab ? i ?
  • Dara was a great scholar. He translated Upanishads and Bhagvadgita. He also wrote Majm ? ul ?
  • Mirza Md. Qazim wrote
  • Ishwar Das Nagar wrote Fatuhat ? i ? Alamgiri


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Delhi Police/SI/ASI History Chapter on Mahajanpadas


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The Mahajanpadas

  • His mother (Mahamaya, of Kosala dynasty) died after 7 days of his birth. Brought up by stepmother
  • Married at 16 to Yoshodhara. Enjoyed the married life for 13 years and had a son named Rahula
  • After seeing an old man, a sick man, a corpse and an ascetic, he decided to become a wanderer.
  • Left his palace at 29 (with Channa, the charioteer and his favourite horse, Kanthaka) in search of truth (also called ?Mahabhinishkramana? or The Great Renunciation) and wandered for 6?years.
  • He first meditated with Alara But he was not convinced that man could obtain liberation from sorrow by mental discipline and knowledge. His next teacher was Udraka Ramputra. He then joined forces? with ?five ascetics- Kondana, Vappa, Bhadiya, Mahanama and Assagi, who were practicing the most rigorous self- mortification in the hope of wearing away their karma and obtaining final bliss.

  • For six years he tortured himself until he was nothing but a walking But after six years, he felt that his fasts and penance had been useless. So he abandoned these things. The five disciples also left him.
  • Attained ?Nirvana? or ?Enlightenment? at 35 at Gaya in Magadha (Bihar) under the Pipal
  • Delivered the first sermon at Sarnath where his five disciples had His first sermon is called ?Dharmachakrapravartan? or ?Turning of the Wheel of Law?.
  • Attained Mahaparinirvana at Kushinagar (identical with village Kasia in Deoria district of UP) in 483 BC at the age of 80 in the Malla


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Delhi Police/SI/ASI Chapter On Vedic Age

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The early Aryans settled in Eastern Afghanistan, modern Pakistan, Punjab and parts of western UP The whole region in which the Aryans first settled in India is called the ?Land of Seven Rivers or Sapta Sindhava? (The Indus and its five tributaries and the Saraswati).

?Political Organisation?

  • Monarchial form, tribe was known as Jan and its king as RaJan He was the leader in battle and protector of His office was not hereditary and was selected among the clan?s men. The rajan was not an absolute monarch, for the government of the tribe was in part the responsibility of the tribal councils like sabha, samiti, gana and vidhata. Even women attended sabha and vidhata.
  • Many clans (Vish) formed a tribe. The basic social unit was the Kula or the family and Kulapa was the head of the?family.
  • The king was assisted by a number of officers of which purohita was the most important. Next? important functionary was the Senani (leader of the army), although there was no regular or standing The military technique of the early Aryans was much advanced. The Aryans succeeded everywhere because they possessed chariots driven by horses.

  • There was no regular revenue system and the kingdom was maintained by the voluntary tribute (Bali) of his subjects and the booty won in
  • Villages were headed by Gramini who used to represent village in sabha and Later, Gramini was handed over the charge of Vrajapati also (an officer who enjoyed authority over the pasture ground).

Social Life?

  • When the Aryans entered India there was already a class division in their tribal
  • As they settled among the dark aboriginals, the Aryans seem to have laid greater stress than before on purity of blood, and class divisions hardened, to exclude those dasas who had found a place in the Aryan society, and those Aryans who had intermarried with the dasas and adopted their

  • Gradually, the tribal society got divided into three groups warriors, priests and commoners. Later, the fourth dasas
    or shudra was also added.
  • The term varna was used for color, the Aryans being fair, the dasas dark.
  • Family was the basic unit of society. The family was patriarchal in nature. But women enjoyed equal power with men. Marriage was usually monogamous and indissoluble, but there are few instances of polyandry, levirate and widow-marriage. There are no examples of child-marriage. The marriageable age seems to have been 16 to 17.

  • The word ?Arya? came to refer to any person who was respected.
  • Aryans were fond of soma, sura, food and dresses. Soma was drunk at sacrifices and its use was sanctified by religion. Sura was purely secular and more potent, and was diapproved by the priestly poets.
  • The Aryans loved music, and played the flute, lute and harp. There are references to singing and dancing, and to dancing girls. People also delighted in gambling. They enjoyed chariot racing. Both men and women wore ornaments.

Early Vedic Period Economy?

  • Their bronze smiths were highly skilled, and produced tools and weapons much superior to those of Harappan culture. There were artisans like carpenters, weavers, cobblers, potters, etc.
  • Aryans followed a mixed economy ? pastoral and agricultural ? in which cattle played a predominant part.
  • Most of their wars were fought for cow (most important form of wealth). Cattle were in fact a sort of currency, and values were reckoned in heads of cattle (man?s life was equivalent to that of 100 cows), but they were not held sacred at this time. The horse was almost as important as the cow.

  • Standard unit of exchange was cow. At the same time coins were also there (gold coins like Nishkq, Krishnal and Satmana).
  • Gavyuti was used as a measure of distance and Godhuli as a measure of time.
  • Lived in fortified mud settlements.

  • Physicians were there called ?Bhishakas?.
  • The staple crop was ?yava?, which meant barley.

Vedic Period Religion?

  • The Aryans personified the natural forces and looked upon them as living beings.
  • The most important divinity was Indra who played the role of warlord (breaker of forts ? Purandar, also associated with storm and thunder).
  • The second position was held by Agni (fire-god). He is considered as an intermediary between gods and men.

  • Varuna occupied the third position. He personified water and was supposed to uphold the natural order. He was ethnically the highest of all Rigvedic gods.
  • Soma was considered to be the god of plants. Maruts personified the storms. Some female deities are also mentioned, like Aditi and Usha, who represented the appearance of dawn.
  • Didn?t believe in erecting temples or idol worship. Worshipped in open air through yajnas.


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Delhi Police/SI/ASI History Chapter on Indus Valley Civilization in India

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Ancient Civilizations in India

  • The Indus Valley Civilization was an ancient civilization thriving along the Indus River and the Ghaggar-Hakra River in what is now Pakistan and north-western India. Among other names for this civilization is the Harappan Civilization, in reference to its first excavated city of Harappa.
  • An alternative term for the culture is Saraswati-Sindhu Civilization, based on the fact that most of the Indus Valley sites have been found at the Halkra-Ghaggar River.
  • B. Dayaram Sahni first discovered Harappa (on Ravi) in 1921. R.D. Banerjee discovered Mohenjodaro or ?Mound of the Dead? (on Indus) in 1922. Sir John Marshal played a crucial role in both these.
  • Harappan Civilization forms part of the proto history of India and belongs to the Bronze Age.
  • Mediterranean, Proto-Australoid, Mongoloids and Alpines formed the bulk of the population, though the first two were more numerous.
  • More than 100 sites belonging to this civilization have been excavated.
  • According to radio-carbon dating, it spread from the year 2500 ? 1750 BC.
  • Copper, bronze, silver, gold were known but not iron.

Geographical Extent :

  • Covered parts of Punjab, Sindh, Baluchistan, Gujarat, Rajasthan and some parts of Western UP. It extended from Manda in Jammu in the north to Daimabad in the south and from Alamgirpur in W. UP to Sutkagendor in Baluchistan in the west.
  • Major sites in Pakistan are Harappa (on Ravi in W Punjab), Mohenjodaro (on Indus), Chanhu-Daro (Sindh), etc. In India, major sites are Lothal, Rangpur and Surkotda (Gujarat), Kalibangan (Rajasthan), Banwali (Hissar), and Alamgirpur (Western UP).
  • Largest and the latest site in India is Dholavira in Gujarat. Dr. J.R Joshi and Dr. R.S. Bisht were involved in

Indus Valley Civilization Town Planning?

  • Elaborate town-planning. It followed the Grid System. Roads were well cut, dividing the town? into ?large rectangular or square blocks. Lamp posts at intervals indicate the existence of? street lightning.? Flanking the streets, lanes and by-lanes were well-planned
  • Used burnt bricks of good quality as the building Elsewhere in the contemporary world, mud-bricks were used.
  • Houses, often of two or more storey, varied in size, but were quite monotonous a square courtyard, around which were a number of rooms. No window faced the streets. The houses had tiled bathrooms.
  • Good drainage Drains were made of mortar, lime and gypsum and covered with large brick slabs for easy cleaning. Shows developed sense of health and sanitation.
  • The towns were divided into 2 parts: Upper part or Citadel and Lower The Citadel was an oblong artificial platform some 30-50 feet high and about 400-200 yards in area It was enclosed by a thick (13 m at Harappa) crenelated mud-brick wall. In Citadel public buildings, granaries, important workshops and religious buildings were there. In lower part people used to live.
  • In Mohanjodaro, a big public bath (Great Bath) measuring 12 m by 7 m and 4 m deep, has been found. StepsGreat Bath – Mohenjodaro Image from Educational site

led from either end to the surface, with changing rooms alongside. It was probably used for ritual ?bathing.

Indus Valley Civilization Economic Life

Indus Valley Civilization Agriculture :

  • The Indus people sowed seeds in the flood plains in November, when the flood water receded, and reaped their harvests of wheat and barley in Apr, before the advent of the next flood.
  • Grew wheat, barley, rai, peas, sesamum, mustard, rice (in Lothal), cotton, dates, melon, etc. The Indus people were the first to produce cotton.
  • In Kalibangan, fields were ploughed with wooden ploughs.
  • Domesticated animals on large scale. Besides the cattle, cats and dogs were domesticated. Horse wasn?t in regular use but elephant was. Remains of horse at Surkotda and dogs with men in grave at Ropar have been discovered.
  • Produced sufficient to feed themselves.
  • Food grains were stored in granaries.

Trade and Commerce in Ancient India :

  • Well-knit external and internal trade. There was no metallic money in circulation and trade was carried through Barter System.
  • Weights and measures of accuracy existed in Harappan culture (found at Lothal). The weights were made of limestone, steatite, etc and were generally cubical in shape.
  • 16 was the unit of measurement (16, 64,160, 320).
  • Flint tool-work, shell-work, bangle making, pottery making, etc were practiced. Raw material for these came from different sources: gold from N.Karnataka, silver and lapis lazuli from Afghanistan and Iran, copper from Khetri and Baluchistan, etc.
  • Bead making factory existed in Chanhudaro and Lothal. They were items of export.
  • A dockyard has been discovered at Lothal. Rangpur, Somnath and Balakot functioned as seaports. Sutkagendor and Sutkakoh functioned as outlets.
  • The inland transport was done with bullock carts.
  • Every merchant or mercantile family probably had a seal bearing an emblem, often of a religious character, and a name or brief description, on one side. The standard Harappa seal was a square or oblong plaque made of steatite stone. The primary purpose of the seal was probably to mark the ownership of property, but they may have also served as amulets.
  • The Mesopotamian records from about 2350 BC onwards refer to trade relations with Meluha, the ancient name of the Indus region. Harappan seals and other material has been found at Mesopotamia. Also traded with Sumer.

Indus Valley Civilization Art and Craft :

  • The Harappan culture belongs to the Bronze Age.
  • Bronze was made by mixing tin and copper. Tools were mostly made of copper and bronze. For making bronze, copper was obtained from Khetri in Rajasthan and from Baluchistan, and tin from Afghanistan.
    • Cotton fabrics quite common. Woolen in
    • Very fond of ornaments (of gold, silver, ivory, copper, bronze, precious stones) and dressing Ornaments were worn by both men and women. Women wore heavy bangles in profusion, large necklaces, ear-rings, bracelets, fingure-rings, girdles, nose studs and anklets. The Harappans were also an expert bead makers.
    • Potter?s wheel was in Their pottery was red or black pottery. Played dice games. Their favourite pastime was Gambling.
    • The Harappans most notable artistic achievement was their seal gravings, esp. those of animals. The red sandstone torso of a man is particularly impressive for its However, the most impressive of the figurines is perhaps the bronze image of the famous dancing girl (identified as devadasi), found at Mohenjodaro.
    • For their children, they made cattle-toys with movable heads, model monkeys which could slide down a string, little toy-carts, and whistles shaped like birds, all of

The Indus Valley Civilization Religious Life :

  • Main object of worship was the Mother Goddess. But the upper classes preferred a god, nude with two horns, much similar to Pasupati Represented on the seal is a figure with three horned heads in a yogic posture. He is surrounded by an elephant, a tiger and a rhinoceros, and below his throne is a buffalo. Near his feet are two deer. Pashupatinath represented male deity.
  • Phallus (lingam) and yoni worship was also
  • Many trees (pipal), animals (bull), birds (dove, pigeon) and stones were worshipped. Unicorn was ?also However, no temple has been found, though idolatry was practiced.
  • At Kalibangan and Lothal fire altars have been
  • Although no definite proof is available with regard to the disposal of the dead, a broad view is that probably there were three methods of disposing the dead ? complete burial, burial after exposure of the body to birds and beasts, and cremation
  • The discovery of cinerary urns and jars, goblets or vessels with ashes, bones and charcoal may, however, suggest that during the flourishing period of the Indus Valley culture the third method was generally In Harappa, there is one place where evidence of coffin burial is there. The people probably believed in ghosts and evil spirits, as amulets were worn.
  • Dead bodies were placed in the north-south

Indus Valley Civilization Script :

  • The script is not alphabetical but pictographic (about 600 undeciphered pictographs).

  • The script has not been deciphered so far, but overlaps of letters show that it was written from right to left in the first line and left to right in the second line. This style is called ?Boustrophedon?.

  • Many historians have given various theories regarding the original place of the
  • However, the Central Asian theory, given by Max Muller, is the most accepted It states that the Aryans were semi-nomadic pastoral people and originated from area around the Caspian Sea in Central Asia.
  • Entered India probably through Khyber Pass (in Hindukush Mountains) around 1500
  • The holy book of Iran ?Zend Avesta? indicates entry of Aryans to India via


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Delhi Police/SI/ASI History Chapter on Prehistory of India

Competition Gurukul presents the latest & revised notes for Delhi Police/SI/ASI Recruitment Exam. All aspirants are advised to go through the notes thoroughly & attempt all the questions given at the end of this chapter

Indian Prehistory

  • The fossils of the early human being have not been found in India. A hint of the earliest human presence in India is indicated by stone tools of about 250,000 BC obtained from the deposits.
  • However, recent reported artifacts from Bori in Maharashtra suggest the appearance of human beings in India around 1.4 million years ago.
  • From their first appearance to around 3000 BC humans used only stone tools for different purposes.
  • This period is, therefore, known as the Stone Age, which has been divided into Paleolithic (early or Old Stone) Age, Mesolithic (Middle Stone) Age, and Neolithic (New Stone) Age.
  • The Paleolithic Age in India (500,000 BC ? 8000 BC):
  • In India it developed in the Pleistocene period or the Ice Age.b.
  • The earliest traces of human existence in India go back to 500,000 BC.
  • The Paleolithic sites are spread in practically all parts of India except the alluvial plains of Indus and Ganga.
  • The people of this age were food gathering people who lived on hunting and gathering wild fruits and vegetables.
  • Man during this period used tools of unpolished, undressed rough stones and lived in cave and rock shelters. They had no knowledge of agriculture, fire or pottery of any material.
  • They mainly used hand axes, cleavers, choppers, blades, scrapers and burin. Their tools were made of hard rock called ?quartzite?. Hence Paleolithic men are also called ?Quartzite Men?.
  • Homo sapiens first appeared in the last of this phase.
  • It has been pointed out that Paleolithic men belonged to the Negrito race.
  • The Paleolithic Age in India has been divided into three phases according to the nature of stone tools used by the people and also according to the nature of change in the climate ? Early or lower Paleolithic, Middle Paleolithic and Upper Paleolithic.
  • The Early Paleolithic Age covers the greater part of the Ice Age. Its characteristic tools are hand axes, cleavers and choppers. Such tools have been found in Soan and Sohan river valley (now in Pakistan) and in the Belan Valley in the Mirzapur district of UP In this period climate became less humid.
  • Middle Paleolithic Phase is characterized by the use of stone tools made of flakes mainly scrapers, borers and blade like tools. The sites are found in the valleys of Soan, Narmada and Tungabhadra rivers.
  • In the Upper Paleolithic Phase, the climate became warm and less humid. This stage is marked by burins and scrapers. Such tools have been found in APKarnataka, Maharashtra, Bhopal and Chhota Nagpur plateau.

The Mesolithic Era History (8000 BC ? 6000 BC) :

  • In this age, climate became warm and dry. Climate changes brought about changes in fauna and flora and made it possible for human beings to move to new areas. Since then, there haven?t been major changes in the climate.
  • The characteristic tools of the Mesolithic Age are known as Microliths-pointed, cresconic blades, scrapers, etc, all made of stone.
  • The people lived on hunting, fishing and food gathering; at a later stage they also domesticated animals.
  • The last phase of this age saw the beginning of plane cultivation.
  • Various Mesolithic sites are found in the Chhotanagpur region, Central India and also south of the Krishna River.
  • In the Belan valley of Vindhyas, all the three phases of the Paleolithic followed by the Mesolithic and then by the Neolithic have been found in sequence. Similar is the case with the middle part of the Narmada valley.

The History of Neolithic Era (6000 BC ? 1000 BC) :

  • In India Neolithic Age is not earlier than 6000 BC and at some places in South and Eastern India; it is as late as 1000 BC.
  • During this phase people were again depending on stone implements. But now they used stones other than quartzite for making tools, which were more lethal, more finished and more polished.
  • Neolithic men cultivated land and grew fruits and corn like ragi and horse gram. They domesticated cattle, sheep and goat
  • They knew about making fire and making pottery, first by hand and then by potters wheel. They also painted and decorated their pottery.
  • They lived in caves and decorated their walls with hunting and dancing scenes. They also knew the art of making boats. They could also weave cotton and wool to make cloth.
  • In the later phase of Neolithic phase people led a more settled life and lived in circular and rectangular houses made of mud and reed.
  • Important sites of this age are Burzahom and Gufkral in J&K (famous for pit dwelling, stone tools and graveyard in house), Maski, Brahmagiri, Tekkalakota in Karnataka, Paiyampatti in Tamil Nadu, Piklihal and Hallur in AP, Garo hils in Meghalaya, Chirand and Senuwar in Bihar (known for remarkable bone tools), Amri, Kotdiji, etc.
  • Koldihawa in UP revealed a three fold cultural sequence: Neolithic, Chalcolithic and Iron Age.

Chalcolithic Period :

  • The end of the Neolithic Period saw the use of metals of which copper was the first. A culture based on the use of stone and copper arrived. Such a culture is called Chalcolithic which means the stone-copper phase.
  • Apart from stone tools, hand axes and other objects made of copperware also used.
  • The Chalcolithic people used different types of pottery of which black and red pottery was most popular. It was wheel made and painted with white line design.
  • These people were not acquainted with burnt? ? They? generally? lived? in? thatched? houses.? It? was? a village economy.
  • They venerated the mother goddess and worshiped the bull.
  • Important sites of this phase are spread in Rajasthan, Maharashtra, West Bengal, Bihar, MP, etc.?


Competition Gurukul is a premier institute for Delhi Police/SI/ASI?Exam Coaching. You can visit our center to register your slot for fresh batches. You will be guided by our counsellor from Monday to Saturday at scheduled timing of 9 AM to 8 PM.

For More Information Contact

Competition Gurukul
A-1/17, Janakpuri, Main Najafgarh Road,
Opp Metro Pillar 636, New Delhi ? 110058